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UNIT-1 GENERAL FEATURES OF REINFORCED CONCRETE: 1.1 Introduction: A structure refers to a system of connected parts used to support forces (loads). Buildings, bridges and towers are examples for structures in civil engineering. In buildings, structure consists of walls floors, roofs and foundation. In bridges, the structure consists of deck, supporting systems and foundations. In towers the structure consists of vertical, horizontal and diagonal members along with foundation. A structure can be broadly classified as (i) sub structure and (ii) super structure. The portion of building below ground level is known as sub-structure and portion above the ground is called as super structure. Foundation is sub structure and plinth, walls, columns, floor slabs with or without beams, stairs, roof slabs with or without beams etc are super structure. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, sand, wood, rocks natural fibers are used to construct buildings. Apart from this many manmade products are in use for building construction. Bricks, tiles, cement concrete, concrete blocks, plastic, steel & glass etc are manmade building materials. Cement concrete is a composites building material made from combination of aggregates (coarse and fine) and a binder such as cement. The most common form of concrete consists of mineral aggregate (gravel & sand), Portland cement and water. After mixing, the cement hydrates and eventually hardens into a stone like material. Recently a large number of additives known as concrete additives are also added to enhance the quality of concrete. Plasticizers, super plasticizers, accelerators, retarders, pazolonic materials, air entertaining agents, fibers, polymers and silica furies are the additives used in concrete. Hardened concrete has high compressive strength and low tensile strength. Concrete is generally strengthened using steel bars or rods known as rebars in tension zone. Such elements are “reinforced concrete” concrete can be moulded to any complex shape using suitable form work and it has high durability, better appearance, fire resistance and economical. For a strong, ductile and durable construction the reinforcement shall have high strength, high tensile strain and good bond to concrete and thermal compatibility. Building components like slab walls, beams, columns foundation & frames are constructed with reinforced concrete. Reinforced concreted can be in-situ concreted or precast concrete. For understanding behavior of reinforced concrete, we shall consider a plain concrete beam subjected to external load as shown in Fig. 1.1. Tensile strength of concrete is approximately one-tenth of its compressive strength. 1

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Hence use of plain concrete as a structural material is limited to situations where significant tensile stresses and strains do not develop as in solid or hollow concrete blocks , pedestal and in mass concrete dams. The steel bars are used in tension zone of the element to resist tension as shown in Fig 1.2 The tension caused by bending moment is chiefly resisted by the steel reinforcements, while concrete resist the compression. Such joint action is possible if relative slip between concrete and steel is prevented. This phenomena is called “bond”. This can be achieved by using deformed bass which has high bond strength at the steel-concrete interface. Rebars imparts “ductility” to the structural element, i.e RC elements has large deflection before it fails due to yielding of steel, thus it gives ample warning before its collapse. 1.2 Design Loads For the analysis and design of structure, the forces are considered as the “Loads” on the structure. In a structure all components which are stationary, like wall, slab etc., exert forces due to gravity, which are called as “Dead Loads”. Moving bodies like furniture, humans etc exert forces due to gravity which are called as “Live Loads”. Dead loads and live loads are gravity forces which act vertically down ward. Wind load is basically a horizontal force due to wind pressure exerted on the structure. Earthquake load is primarily a horizontal pressure exerted due to movement of the soil on the foundation of a structure. Vertical earthquake force is about 5% to 10% of horizontal earthquake force. Fig. 1.3 illustrates the loads that are considered in analysis and design. 2

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Loads Static Bead loads (Fixes) Self Weigth Live loads (movable) Load due (to settlement) Dynamic Vibrator Fatigue due to occupancy environment Harmonic Impact shock blast fixed (ex: water flow) or furniture random or equipment Internal Wind forces Force Machinery Induced Ground vibration Ex: Earthquake Fig 1.3 Types of loads on Structure IS875 -1987 part 1 gives unit weight of different materials, Part – 2 of this code describes live load on floors and roof. Wind load to be considered is given in part 3 of the code. Details of earthquake load to be considered is described in 1893 – 2002 code and combination of loads is given in part 5 of IS875 – 1987. 3

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1.3. Materials for Reinforced Concrete Concrete Concrete is a composite material consists essentially of a) A binding medium cement and water called cement paste b) Particles of a relatively inert filler called aggregate The selection of the relative proportions of cement, water and aggregate is called “mix design” Basic requirement of a good concrete are workability, strength, durability and economy. Depending upon the intended use the cement may be OPC (33,43 & 53 Grade), Rapid hardening cements Portland slag, Portland pozzolona etc. High cement content give rise to increased shrinkage, creep and cracking. Minimum cement content is 300Kg/m3 and maximum being 450Kg/m3 as per Indian code. Mineral additives like fly ash , silica fume, rice husk ash, metakoline and ground granulated blast furnace slag may be used to reduce micro cracks . The aggregate used is primarily for the purpose of providing bulk to the concrete and constitutes 60 to 80 percent of finished product. Fine aggregates are used to increase the workability and uniformly of concrete mixture. Water used for mixing and curing shall be clean and free from oil, acids, alkalis, salts, sugar etc. The diverse requirements of mixability, stability, transportability place ability, mobility, compatibility of fresh concrete are collectively referred to as workability. Compressive strength of concrete on 28th day after casting is considered as one of the measure of quality. At least 4 specimens of cubes should be tested for acceptance criteria. Grade of concrete Based on the compressive strength of concrete, they are designated with letter H followed by an integer number represented characteristic strength of concrete, measured using 150mm size cube. Characteristic strength is defined us the strength of material below which not more than 5% of test results are expected to full. The concrete grade M10, M15 and M20 are termed as ordinary concrete and those of M25 to M55 are termed as standard concrete and the concrete of grade 60 and above are termed as high strength concrete. The selection of minimum grade of concrete is dictated by durability considerations which are based on kind of environment to which the structure is exposed, though the minimum grade of concrete for reinforced concrete is specified as M20 under mild exposure conditions, it is advisable to adopt a higher grade. For moderate, severe, very severe and extreme exposure conditions, M25, M30, M35 & M40 grades respectively are recommended. Typical stress-strain curves of concrete is shown in Fig.1.4 4

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