The smallest unit of information that is represented in computer is known as Bit (Binary Digit ),
which is either 0 or 1. Four bits together is known as Nibble, and Eight bits together is known as
Computer Organization and Architecture
Computer technology has made incredible improvement in the past half century. In the early part
of computer evolution, there were no stored-program computer, the computational power was
less and on the top of it the size of the computer was a very huge one.
Today, a personal computer has more computational power, more main memory, more disk
storage, smaller in size and it is available in affordable cost.
This rapid rate of improvement has come both from advances in the technology used to build
computers and from innovation in computer design. In this course we will mainly deal with the
innovation in computer design.
The task that the computer designer handles is a complex one: Determine what attributes are
important for a new machine, and then design a machine to maximize performance while staying
within cost constraints.
This task has many aspects, including instruction set design, functional organization, logic
design, and implementation.
While looking for the task for computer design, both the terms computer organization and
computer architecture come into picture.
It is difficult to give precise definition for the terms Computer Organization and Computer
Architecture. But while describing computer system, we come across these terms, and in
literature, computer scientists try to make a distinction between these two terms.
Computer architecture refers to those parameters of a computer system that are visible to a
programmer or those parameters that have a direct impact on the logical execution of a program.
Examples of architectural attributes include the instruction set, the number of bits used to
represent different data types, I/O mechanisms, and techniques for addressing memory.
Computer organization refers to the operational units and their interconnections that realize the
architectural specifications. Examples of organizational attributes include those hardware details
transparent to the programmer, such as control signals, interfaces between the computer and
peripherals, and the memory technology used.
In this course we will touch upon all those factors and finally come up with the concept how
these attributes contribute to build a complete computer system.