Message passing techniques for communication between
objects makes the interface descriptions with external
systems much simpler.
programming, up to now, has been in the area of user interface
design such as windows. Hundreds of windowing systems
have been developed, using the OOP techniques.
Software complexity can be easily managed.
Real-business systems are often much more complex and
contain many more objects with complicated attributes and
methods. OOP is useful in these types of applications because
it can simplify a complex problem. The promising areas for
application of OOP include:
While it is possible to incorporate all these features in an objectoriented system, their importance depends on the type of the
project and the preference of the programmer. There are a
number of issues that need to be tackled to reap some of the
benefits stated above. For instance, object libraries must be
available for reuse. The technology is still developing and,
current products may be superseded quickly. Strict controls and
protocols. need to be developed if reuse is not to be compromised.
Simulation and modeling
Hypertext, hypermedia and expertext
Developing software that is easy to use makes it hard to build.
It is hoped that the object-. oriented programming tools would
help manage this problem.
AI and expert systems
Neural networks and Parallel programming Decision
support and office automation systems
Object Oriented Languages
Object-oriented programming is not the right of any particular
language. Like structured.
Programming, OOP concepts can be implemented using
languages such as C and Pascal. However, programming
becomes clumsy and may generate confusion when the
programs grow large. A language that is specially designed to
support the OOP concepts makes it easier to implement them.
The languages should support several of the OOP concepts to
claim that they are object., oriented. Depending upon the
features they support, they can be classified into the following
1. Object-based programming languages, and
2. Object-oriented programming languages.
Object-based programming is the style of programming that
primarily supports encapsulation and object identity. Major
features that are required for object-based programming are:
• Data encapsulation
Data hiding and access mechanisms
Automatic initialization and clear-up of objects
Languages that support programming with objects are said to
be object-based programming languages. They do not support
inheritance and dynamic binding. Ada is a typical object-based
Object-oriented programming incorporates all of object-based
programming features along with two additional features,
namely, inheritance and dynamic binding. Object-oriented
programming can therefore be characterized by the following
Object-based features + inheritance + dynamic binding
Languages that support these features include C++, Smalltalk,
Object Pascal and Java. There are a large number of object-based
and object-oriented programming languages.
Applications of Oop
Applications of OOP are beginning to gain importance in many
areas. The most popular application of object-oriented
Object-oriented technology is certainly going to change the way
the software engineers think, analyze, design and implement
Points to Ponder
Object-oriented programming as an approach that provides a
way of modularizing programs by creating partitioned memory
area for both data and functions that can be used as tempalates
for creating copies of such modules on demand.”
A class is a collection of objects of similar type
Inheritance is the process by which objects of one class
acquire the properties of objects of another class.
Polymorphism, means the ability to take more than one
Dynamic binding (also known as late binding) means that
the code associated with a given procedure call is not known
until the time of the call at run-time
Object-orientation contributes to the solution of many
problems associated with the development and quality of
Object-oriented programming incorporates all of objectbased programming features along with two additional
features, namely, inheritance and dynamic binding
The most popular application of object-oriented
programming, up to now, has been in the area of user
interface design such as windows
1. Discuss features of OOPS
2. What do you mean by Dynamic Binding? How it is useful
3. What are the Applications of OOPS?
Object Oriented Programming With C++
By E Balagurusamy
Let US C++
By Yashwant Kanetkar.