THEORY OF COMPUTATION LECTURE NOTES (Subject Code: BCS-303) for Bachelor of Technology in Computer Science and Engineering & Information Technology Department of Computer Science and Engineering & Information Technology Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology (Formerly UCE, Burla) Burla, Sambalpur, Odisha Lecture Note Prepared by: Prof. D. Chandrasekhar Rao Prof. Kishore Kumar Sahu Prof. Pradipta Kumar Das
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BCS 303 THEORY OF COMPUTATION (3-1-0) Cr.-4 Module – I (10 Lectures) Introduction to Automata: The Methods Introduction to Finite Automata, Structural Representations, Automata and Complexity. Proving Equivalences about Sets, The Contrapositive, Proof by Contradiction, Inductive Proofs: General Concepts of Automata Theory: Alphabets Strings, Languages, Applications of Automata Theory. Finite Automata: The Ground Rules, The Protocol, Deterministic Finite Automata: Definition of a Deterministic Finite Automata, How a DFA Processes Strings, Simpler Notations for DFA’s, Extending the Transition Function to Strings, The Language of a DFA Nondeterministic Finite Automata: An Informal View. The Extended Transition Function, The Languages of an NFA, Equivalence of Deterministic and Nondeterministic Finite Automata. Finite Automata With Epsilon-Transitions: Uses of ∈-Transitions, The Formal Notation for an ∈-NFA, Epsilon-Closures, Extended Transitions and Languages for ∈-NFA’s, Eliminating ∈Transitions. Module – II (10 Lectures) Regular Expressions and Languages: Regular Expressions: The Operators of regular Expressions, Building Regular Expressions, Precedence of Regular-Expression Operators, Precedence of Regular-Expression Operators Finite Automata and Regular Expressions: From DFA’s to Regular Expressions, Converting DFA’s to Regular Expressions, Converting DFA’s to Regular Expressions by Eliminating States, Converting Regular Expressions to Automata. Algebraic Laws for Regular Expressions: Properties of Regular Languages: The Pumping Lemma for Regular Languages, Applications of the Pumping Lemma Closure Properties of Regular Languages, Decision Properties of Regular Languages, Equivalence and Minimization of Automata, Context-Free Grammars and Languages: Definition of Context-Free Grammars, Derivations Using a Grammars Leftmost and Rightmost Derivations, The Languages of a Grammar, Parse Trees: Constructing Parse Trees, The Yield of a Parse Tree, Inference Derivations, and Parse Trees, From Inferences to Trees, From Trees to Derivations, From Derivation to Recursive Inferences, Applications of Context-Free Grammars: Parsers, Ambiguity in Grammars and Languages: Ambiguous Grammars, Removing Ambiguity From Grammars, Leftmost Derivations as a Way to Express Ambiguity, Inherent Anbiguity Module – III (10 Lectures)
Pushdown Automata: Definition Formal Definition of Pushdown Automata, A Graphical Notation for PDA’s, Instantaneous Descriptions of a PDA, Languages of PDA: Acceptance by Final State, Acceptance by Empty Stack, From Empty Stack to Final State, From Final State to Empty Stack Equivalence of PDA’s and CFG’s: From Grammars to Pushdown Automata, From PDA’s to Grammars Deterministic Pushdown Automata: Definition of a Deterministic PDA, Regular Languages and Deterministic PDA’s, DPDA’s and Context-Free Languages, DPDA’s and Ambiguous Grammars Properties of Context-Free Languages: Normal Forms for Context-Free Grammars, The Pumping Lemma for Context-Free Languages, Closure Properties of Context-Free Languages, Decision Properties of CFL’s Module –IV (10 Lectures) Introduction to Turing Machines: The Turing Machine: The Instantaneous Descriptions for Turing Machines, Transition Diagrams for Turing Machines, The Language of a Turing Machine, Turing Machines and Halting Programming Techniques for Turing Machines, Extensions to the Basic Turing Machine, Restricted Turing Machines, Turing Machines and Computers, Undecidability: A Language That is Not Recursively Enumerable, Enumerating the Binary Strings, Codes for Turing Machines, The Diagonalization Language An Undecidable Problem That Is RE: Recursive Languages, Complements of Recursive and RE languages, The Universal Languages, Undecidability of the Universal Language Undecidable Problems About Turing Machines: Reductions, Turing Machines That Accept the Empty Language. Post’s Correspondence Problem: Definition of Post’s Correspondence Problem, The “Modified” PCP, Other Undecidable Problems: Undecidability of Ambiguity for CFG’s Text Book: 1. Introduction to Automata Theory Languages, and Computation, by J.E.Hopcroft, R.Motwani & J.D.Ullman (3rd Edition) – Pearson Education 2. Theory of Computer Science (Automata Language & Computations), by K.L.Mishra & N. Chandrashekhar, PHI