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Note for Surveying-1 - s-1 By Hifzur Rahman

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SURVEYING – I UNIT I INDRODUCTION AND CHAIN SURVEYING 1. Define Surveying. What are the fundamental principles of surveying? Surveying is an art of determining the relative positions of various points on, above or below the surface of the earth by means of direct or indirect measurement of distance, direction and elevation. The principles of surveying are: (i) Working from whole to part. (ii)To locate a new station by at least two measurements (angular, linear) from fixed reference points. 2. What is the object or purpose of surveying? The primary object of surveying is to prepare a plan or map to show the relative position of the objects on the surface of the earth. It is also used to determine the areas, volumes and other related quantities. 3. Name the different ways of classification of surveys. a. Primary classification (i). Plane surveying (ii). Geodetic surveying. b.Secondary classification (i). Based on instruments used (ii).Based on methods. (iii). Based on object (iv). Based on nature of the field 4. Differentiate between plane and geodetic surveying. Sl.No. Plane surveying Geodetic surveying. 1. The curvature of the earth is The curvature of the earth is taken. neglected. 2. A line joining any two points is A line joining any two points is considered straight. considered as curved line. 3. The triangle formed by any three The triangle formed by any three points is considered as plane points is considered as spherical triangle. triangle. 4. It is done on a area less than 250 It is done on a area greater than 250 Km 2 Km 2 5. Define the constructions of a diagonal scale. For a given short length ( PQ=PR), draw a right angle triangle. Its base( PR) and height (PQ) are equal. A short length is divided into a number of parts by using the principle of similar triangles in which like sides are proportional. Thus, 1-1 represents 1/ 10 PQ 9-9 represents 9/ 10 PQ 6. Define chain surveying. What is the fundamental principle of chain surveying? Chain surveying is the type of surveying in which only linear measurements are made in the field. The main principle of chain surveying or chain triangulation is to provide a framework consist of number of well-conditioned triangles or nearly equilateral triangles. It is used to find the area of the field. 7. What is a well-conditioned triangle? What is its specific advantage? A triangle is said to be well- conditioned or well proportioned when it contains no angle smaller than 300 and no angle greater than 1200.The main principle of chain surveying is chain triangulation. It consists of frame work of triangles. To plot the network of triangles accurately, the triangles must be nearly equal to equilateral or well-conditioned. The distortion due to errors in measurement and plotting should be minimum. 8. What are the operations involved in chain survey? (i). Ranging: The process of locating intermediate points on a straight line between two end points in a straight line.

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(ii). Chaining: The process of measuring the distance with a chain or tape. (iii). Offsetting: The process of measuring the lateral distance of the object from the survey line to the left or right according to their positions. 9. What are the instruments required for a chain survey? Chain or tape, Arrows, Pegs, Ranging rods, Offset rods, Laths or whites, Plumb bob, Cross staff and Mallet. 10. Write the different types of Chain. (i). Metric chain (ii). Non-Metric chain (a).Gunter‟s chain or Surveyor‟s chain (b). Engineer‟s chain (c). Revenue chain (d). Steel band. 11. Differentiate between Gunter’s chain and Engineer’s Chain Sl.No. Gunter‟s chain or Surveyor‟s chain Engineer‟s chain 1. It is 66 feet long and divided in to 100 It is 100 feet long and divided in links. 1link = 0.66 feet to 100 links. 1link = 1 feet 2. Measurements are in miles and furlongs. Measurements are in feet and decimals 12. Define the terms: (a).Main stations: Main station is a prominent point on the chain line and can be either at the beginning of the chain line or at the end or along the boundary. (b). Subsidiary stations: The stations located on the main survey lines are known as Subsidiary stations. (c). Tie stations: These are also subsidiary stations taken on the main survey lines to locate the details of the object. 13. Distinguish between a check line and a tie line. Sl.No Check line Tie line 1. Check lines or Proof lines are the The main object of running a tie line lines which are run in the field to is to take the details of the objects. check the accuracy of the work 2. The length of the check line Tie line is a line which joints measured in the field must agree subsidiary stations or tie stations on With its length of the plan. the main line. 14. What are the instruments used for setting out right angles to a chain line? (i). Cross staff. a. Open cross staff b.French cross staff c.Adjustable cross staff (ii). Optical square (iii). Prism square (iv). Site square. 15. What are offsets? Classify them. An offset is the lateral distance of an object or ground feature measured from a survey line. The two types of offsets are, (i). Perpendicular offset: The angle of offset from a point on a chain line is 900 (ii). Oblique offset: When the angle of offset is other than 900 . Perpendicular offset Oblique offset 16. What is the use of a line Ranger? The line Ranger is a small reflecting instrument used for fixing intermediate points on the chain lines. Without going to either end, we can fix the intermediate points. 17. What are the different sources of errors in chain surveying? (i). Instrumental errors: incorrect length of the chain (Cumulative Errors).

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18. What are the stages of fieldwork in chain surveying? Or what are the steps involved in chain survey?  Reconnaissance: It is the preliminary inspection of the area to be surveyed.  Marking and fixing Survey lines.  Running survey lines.  Taking Offsets. 19. What are the different tape corrections?  Correction for absolute length or standardisation.  Correction for temperature.  Correction for pull or tension.  Correction for sag. (- ve)  Correction for slope. (- ve) 20. What are the errors in chaining? (i). Compensating Errors: Which are liable to occur in either direction and tend to compensate. (ii). Cumulative Errors: Which occur in the same direction and tend to add or subtract. It may be positive (measured lengths more than the actual length) or negative (measured lengths less than the actual length). (iii). Personal error: Bad ranging (Cumulative Errors). Careless holding (Compensating Errors). Bad straightening (Cumulative Errors). Non- horizontality (Cumulative Errors). Sag in chain (Cumulative Errors). Miscounting and misreading and booking. (iv). Natural Errors: Variation in temperature. (Cumulative Errors). 21. Enumerate the instruments used for measurement of lengths of survey lines. (i). Chain or tape. (ii)Passometer. iii). Pedometer (iv). Odometern (v). Speedometer. UNIT II COMPASS SURVEYING AND PLANE TABLE SURVEYING 1. Define: Compass surveying. What are the objects of compass surveying? Compass surveying is the type of surveying in which the direction of the survey lines are measured with a compass and the length of the survey lines are measured with a tape or chain in the field. 2. Write the names of the instruments used in chain surveying. (i). Instruments for the direct measurement of directions: a) Surveyor‟s compass. b). Prismatic compass. (ii).Instruments for the measurement of angles: a) Sextant b) Theodolite. 3. Define the terms: (a). True meridian and bearing: True meridian: The line or plane passing through the geographical North Pole, South Pole and any point on the surface of the earth, is known as true meridian or geographical meridian. True meridian at a point is constant. True bearing: The angle between the true meridian and a survey line is known as true bearing or Azimuth of the line. (b). Magnetic meridian and Bearing: Magnetic meridian : Magnetic meridian at a point is the direction indicated by freely suspended, properly balanced and unaffected magnetic needle at that point. Magnetic Bearing: The angle between the magnetic meridian and a survey line is known as magnetic bearing or bearing .of the line. It changes with time.

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4. What do you understand by Whole circle bearing and quadrantal bearing of a line? Magnetic Bearings are designated by Whole circle bearing system and quadrantal bearing system. In Whole circle bearing system (WCB), the bearing of the line is measured with magnetic north in clockwise direction. It varies from 00 to 3600. In quadrantal bearing system (Q.B or R.B) the bearing of the line is measured eastward or westward from north or south, whichever is nearer. The directions can be either clockwise or anticlockwise. It varies from 00 to 900. 5. Convert the whole circle bearing into reduced bearing: 500, 1760, 2100, 2320, 1500, 760, 3100 0 ,242 . Whole circle bearing WCB Reduced bearing RB 500 N 500 E. 1760 S (1800 – 1760)E = S 40 E 2100 S (2100 – 1800)W = S 300 W 2320 S (2320 – 1800)W = S 520 W 1500 S (1800 – 1500) E = S 300 E 760 N 760 E 3100 N (3600 – 3100) W = N 50 0 W 2420 S (2420 – 1800)W = S 620 W 6.What is its back bearing? In quadrantal bearing (RB) system, the FB and BB are numerically equal but the quadrants are just opposite. The FB of a line PQ is N 280 W, Then its BB is S 280 E . 7. Differentiate between Prismatic compass and Surveyor’s compass with reference to reading and tripod. SI.No. Item Prismatic compass Surveyor‟s compass 1. Reading (i). The reading is taken with a (i). The reading is taken by help of prism provided at the eye directly seeing through the top of slit. the glass. (ii). Sighting and reading taking (ii). Sighting and reading taking can be done simultaneously from cannot be done simultaneously one position of the observer. from one position of the observer. 2. Tripod Tripod may or may not be The instrument cannot be used provided. without a tripod. 8. Define: Fore and Back bearing. The bearing of a line is measured in the direction of the progress of the survey is called the fore bearing of the (FB) line. The bearing of a line is measured in the direction opposite to the survey is called the back bearing of the (BB) line.

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