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Note for Renewable Energy System - RES by Hymavathi Ulli

  • Renewable Energy System - RES
  • Note
  • swarnandhra college of engineering and technology - swrn
  • Electrical and Electronics Engineering
  • B.Tech
  • 6 Topics
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Ramachandra College of Engineering NH-5 Bypass Road, Vatluru(V), Eluru-534007, West Godavari Dt., A.P. Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering Teaching Notes Subject:Non conventional Energy Sources Faculty:K.Rajesh Babu Branch & year :ECE- IV(A&B) UNIT-1 Principles of Solar Radiation Syllabus: Role & potential of new renewable source, the solar option, environmental impact of solar power, physics of sun, the solar constant, extra terrestrial & terrestrial solar radiation, Solar Radiation on titled surface, Instruments for measuring solar radiation and sunshine, solar radiation data Introduction: The aim of this text is to analyze the full range of renewable energy supplies available for modern economies. Such renewable are recognized as vital inputs for sustainability and so encouraging their growth is significant. Subjects will include power from wind, water, biomass, sunshine and other such continuing sources, including wastes. Although the scale of local application ranges from tens to many millions of watts, and the totality is a global resource, four questions are asked for practical application: 1 How much energy is available in the immediate environment – what is the resource? 2 For what purposes can this energy be used – what is the end-use? 3 What is the environmental impact of the technology – is it sustainable? 4 What is the cost of the energy – is it cost-effective? For all practical purposes energy supplies can be divided into two classes: 1. Renewable energy: „Energy obtained from natural and persistent flows of energy occurring in the immediate environment‟. An obvious example is solar (sunshine) energy, where „repetitive‟ refers to the 24-hour major period. Note that the energy is already passing through the environment as a current or flow , irrespective of there being a device to intercept and harness this power. Such energy may also be called Green Energy or Sustainable Energy. 2 Non-renewable energy: „Energy obtained from static stores of energy that remain underground unless released by human interaction‟. Examples are nuclear fuels and fossil fuels of coal, oil and natural gas. Note that the energy is initially an isolated energy potential, and external action is required to initiate the supply of energy for practical purposes. To avoid using the ungainly word „non-renewable‟, such energy supplies are called finite supplies or Brown Energy. 1

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Necessity of Renewable energy sources: Many nations count on coal, oil and natural gas to supply most of their energy needs, but reliance on fossil fuels presents a big problem. Fossil fuels are a finite resource. Eventually, the world will run out of fossil fuels, or it will become too expensive to retrieve those that remain. Fossil fuels also cause air, water and soil pollution, and produce greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Renewable energy resources, such as wind, solar and hydropower, offer clean alternatives to fossil fuels. They produce little or no pollution or greenhouse gases, and they will never run out. Advantages & disadvantages of Nonconventional/renewable energy sources: Advantages: 1. Available free of cost 2. Cause no or very little pollution 3. Environment-friendly 4. Inexhaustible 5.Have low gestation period 6. Do not deplete natural resources 7. Can sustain energy supply for many generations. Disadvantages: 1. available in dilute form in nature 2. Cost of harnessing energy is very high 3. Availability is uncertain 4. Difficulty in transporting such resources Types of Non conventional Energy Sources: Solar Energy (energy from sun) Wind energy Energy from Bio Mass Geothermal Energy Energy from Oceans  OTEC  Tidal Energy  Small Scale Hydro electric (Mini & Micro)  Chemical energy sources  Hydrogen energy  Magneto hydro dynamics      2

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Potential of NCES:  The non-conventional sources of energy in the country are available in abundance and their potential is need to be utilized particularly in a country like India where the basic economy of the majority of the people about 73 percent is based on agriculture and the demand of energy of rural population is less as compared to urban settlements. In a scenario of increasing urbanization and increasing demands on commercial energy there is an urgent need to utilize the non-conventional source of energy which has a large potential in the country.  Our coastal areas have a large potential of wind energy while the potential of solar energy in the country is of 20 MW / Km2. “Bio-gas” is another source of energy which also has a big potential as we have a bulk of live stock. Majority of our rural population still depends upon the locally available non-conventional sources of energy based on animal dung, crop waste and full wood etc.  In order to ensure the efficient use of conventional energy in an environment friendly manner, it is important to promote the programmers for use of nonconventional energy sources. So far, our national effort in development and application of renewable energy has not yielded it any result of significance. 3

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SOLAR POWER What is solar Energy: so·lar en·er·gy (Noun) :Radiant energy Emitted by the sun Solar power is energy from the sun. "Solar" is the Latin word for "sun" and it's a powerful source of energy. Without it, there will be no life. Solar energy is considered as a serious source of energy for many years because of the vast amounts of energy that is made freely available, if harnessed by modern technology. Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar energy technologies include solar heating, solar photovoltaic‟s, solar thermal electricity, solar architecture and artificial photosynthesis, which can make considerable contributions to solving some of the most urgent energy problems the world now faces. [1][2] Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air. In 2011, the International Energy Agency said that "the development of affordable, inexhaustible and clean solar energy technologies will have huge longerterm benefits. It will increase countries‟ energy security through reliance on an indigenous, inexhaustible and mostly import-independent resource, enhance sustainability, reduce pollution, lower the costs of mitigating climate change, and keep fuel prices lower than otherwise. These advantages are global. Hence the additional costs of the incentives for early deployment should be considered learning investments; they must be wisely spent and need to be widely shared Environmental Impact of solar power Solar energy has the potential to dramatically change the way the world gets its power. Enough solar energy falls on a 100-square-mile area of the southwestern United States to power the entire nation. While solar is among the world's cleanest forms of energy, plans to develop utility scale solar farms have raised concerns about potential environmental impacts. Climate Change The burning of fossil fuels for energy remains the world's No. 1 source of carbon dioxide emissions. Solar power is sometimes described as a zero emissions or emissions-free form of energy, and it is true that greenhouse gas emissions from solar are negligible . However, the construction of new utility scale solar energy projects is bound to result in some greenhouse gas emissions. This fact is acknowledged in the Final Environmental Impact Statement for one proposed solar farm in California. Water Creating energy is a water intensive process. In the U.S., electricity production accounts for more than 40 percent of all daily freshwater withdrawals. Solar photovoltaic systems do not require any water to generate electricity. Some solar thermal systems use water, but this water can be reused. Utility scale parabolic and central tower solar energy systems use steam plants to produce power, often relying on water for cooling . There is some concern that these types of systems, when located in arid environments, could put a strain on local water resources. 4

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