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Note for Computer Network - CN By Nazeer Basha

  • Computer Network - CN
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  • Master of Computer Applications
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Unit-1 Computer Network: It is the interconnection of multiple devices, generally termed as Hosts connected using multiple paths for the purpose of sending/receiving data or media. There are also multiple devices or mediums which helps in the communication between two different devices which are known as Network devices. Ex: Router, Switch, Hub, Bridge Computer Network | Types of area networks:   The Network allows computers to connect and communicate with different computers via any medium. LAN, MAN and WAN are the three major types of the network designed to operate over the area they cover. Local Area Network (LAN) –         LAN or Local Area Network connects network devices in such a way that personal computer and workstations can share data, tools and programs. The group of computers and devices are connected together by a switch, or stack of switches, using a private addressing scheme as defined by the TCP/IP protocol. Routers are found at the boundary of a LAN, connecting them to the larger WAN. LANs cover smaller geographical area (Size is limited to a few kilometers) and are privately owned. One can use it for an office building, home, hospital, schools, etc. LAN is easy to design and maintain. A Communication medium used for LAN has twisted pair cables and coaxial cables It covers a short distance, and so the error and noise are minimized. Early LAN’s had data rates in the 4 to 16 Mbps range. Today, speeds are normally 100 or 1000 Mbps. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) –       MAN or Metropolitan area Network covers a larger area than that of a LAN and smaller area as compared to WAN. It connects two or more computers that are apart but resides in the same or different cities. It covers a large geographical area and may serve as an ISP (Internet Service Provider). MAN is designed for customers who need a high-speed connectivity. Speeds of MAN ranges in terms of Mbps. It’s hard to design and maintain a Metropolitan Area Network Wide Area Network (WAN) –       WAN or Wide Area Network is a computer network that extends over a large geographical area, although it might be confined within the bounds of a state or country. A WAN could be a connection of LAN connecting to other LAN’s via telephone lines and radio waves and may be limited to an enterprise (a corporation or an organization) or accessible to the public. The technology is high speed and relatively expensive. There are two types of WAN: Switched WAN and Point-to-Point WAN. WAN is difficult to design and maintain. Similar to a MAN, the fault tolerance of a WAN is less and there is more congestion in the network. A Communication medium used for WAN is PSTN or Satellite Link. Due to long distance transmission, the noise and error tend to be more in WAN. Network Models:

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REFERENCE MODELS:     We will discuss two important network architectures: the OSI reference model and the TCP/IP reference model. Although the protocols associated with the OSI model are not used any more, the model itself is actually quite general and still valid, and the features discussed at each layer are still very important. The TCP/IP model has the opposite properties: the model itself is not of much use but the protocols are widely used. For this reason we will look at both of them in detail. Also, sometimes you can learn more from failures than from successes. The OSI Reference Model:   OSI stands for Open Systems Interconnection. It has been developed by ISO – ‘International Organization of Standardization‘, in the year 1974. The OSI model has seven layers. The principles that were applied to arrive at the seven layers can be briefly summarized as follows: 1. Alayer should be created where a different abstraction is needed. 2. Each layer should perform a well-defined function. 3. The function of each layer should be chosen with an eye toward defining internationally standardized protocols. 4. The layer boundaries should be chosen to minimize the information flow across the interfaces. 5. The number of layers should be large enough that distinct functions need not be thrown together in the same layer out of necessity and small enough that the architecture does not become unwieldy.  Below we will discuss each layer of the model in turn, starting at the bottom layer.  Note that the OSI model itself is not a network architecture because it does not specify the exact services and protocols to be used in each layer. It just tells what each layer should do.

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The Physical Layer:     The physical layer is concerned with transmitting raw bits over a communication channel. The design issues have to do with making sure that when one side sends a 1 bit it is received by the other side as a 1 bit, not as a 0 bit. Typical questions here are what electrical signals should be used to represent a 1 and a 0, how many nanoseconds a bit lasts, whether transmission may proceed simultaneously in both directions, how the initial connection is established, how it is torn down when both sides are finished, how many pins the network connector has, and what each pin is used for. These design issues largely deal with mechanical, electrical, and timing interfaces, as well as the physical transmission medium, which lies below the physical layer. The Data Link Layer         The main task of the data link layer is to transform a raw transmission facility into a line that appears free of undetected transmission errors. It does so by masking the real errors so the network layer does not see them. It accomplishes this task by having the sender break up the input data into data frames (typically a few hundred or a few thousand bytes) and transmit the frames sequentially. I f the service is reliable, the receiver confirms correct receipt of each frame by sending back an acknowledgement frame. Another issue that arises in the data link layer (and most of the higher layers as well) is how to keep a fast transmitter from drowning a slow receiver in data. Some traffic regulation mechanism may be needed to let the transmitter know when the receiver can accept more data. Broadcast networks have an additional issue in the data link layer: how to control access to the shared channel. A special sublayer of the data link layer, the medium access control sublayer, deals with this problem. The Network Layer:            The network layer controls the operation of the subnet. A key design issue is determining how packets are routed from source to destination. Routes can be based on static tables that are ‘‘wired into’’ the network and rarely changed, or more often they can be updated automatically to avoid failed components. They can also be determined at the start of each conversation, for example, a terminal session, such as a login to a remote machine. Finally, they can be highly dynamic, being determined anew for each packet to reflect the current network load. If too many packets are present in the subnet at the same time, they will get in one another’s way, forming bottlenecks. Handling congestion is also a responsibility of the network layer, in conjunction with higher layers that adapt the loadhey place on the network. More generally, the quality of service provided (delay, transit time, jitter, etc.) is also a network layer issue. When a packet has to travel from one network to another to get to its destination, many problems can arise. The addressing used by the second network may be different from that used by the first one. The second one may not accept the packet at all because it is too large. The protocols may differ, and so on. It is up to the network layer to overcome all these problems to allow heterogeneous networks to be interconnected. In broadcast networks, the routing problem is simple, so the network layer is often thin or even nonexistent. The Transport Layer       The basic function of the transport layer is to accept data from above it, split it up into smaller units if need be, pass these to the network layer, and ensure that the pieces all arrive correctly at the other end. Furthermore, all this must be done efficiently and in a way that isolates the upper layers from the inevitable changes in the hardware technology over the course of time. The transport layer also determines what type of service to provide to the session layer, and, ultimately, to the users of the network . The most popular type of transport connection is an error-free point-to-point channel that delivers messages or bytes in the order in which they were sent. However, other possible kinds of transport service exist, such as the transporting of isolated messages with no guarantee about the order of delivery, and the broadcasting of messages to multiple destinations. The type of service is determined when the connection is established.

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   The transport layer is a true end-to-end layer; it carries data all the way from the source to the destination. In other words, a program on the source machine carries on a conversation with a similar program on the destination machine, using the message headers and control messages. In the lower layers, each protocols is between a machine and its immediate neighbors, and not between the ultimate source and destination machines, which may be separated by many routers. The Session Layer   The session layer allows users on different machines to establish sessions between them. Sessions offer various services, including dialog control (keeping track of whose turn it is to transmit), token management (preventing two parties from attempting the same critical operation simultaneously), and synchronization (checkpointing long transmissions to allow them to pick up from where they left off in the event of a crash and subsequent recovery). The Presentation Layer    Unlike the lower layers, which are mostly concerned with moving bits around, the presentation layer is concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information transmitted. In order to make it possible for computers with different internal data representations to communicate, the data structures to be exchanged can be defined in an abstract way, along with a standard encoding to be used ‘‘on the wire.’’ The presentation layer manages these abstract data structures and allows higher-level data structures (e.g., banking records) to be defined and exchanged. The Application Layer     The application layer contains a variety of protocols that are commonly needed by users. One widely used application protocol is HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol), which is the basis for the World Wide Web. When a browser wants a Web page, it sends the name of the page it wants to the server hosting the page using HTTP. The server then sends the page back. Other application protocols are used for file transfer, electronic mail, and network news. The TCP/IP Reference Model (or) TCP Protocol suite:             Let us now turn from the OSI reference model to the reference model used in the grandparent of all wide area computer networks, the ARPANET, and its successor, the worldwide Internet. Although we will give a brief history of the ARPANET later, it is useful to mention a few key aspects of it now. The ARPANET was a research network sponsored by the DoD (U.S. Department of Defense). It eventually connected hundreds of universities and government installations, using leased telephone lines. When satellite and radio networks were added later, the existing protocols had trouble interworking with them, so a new reference architecture was needed. Thus, from nearly the beginning, the ability to connect multiple networks in a seamless way was one of the major design goals. This architecture later became known as the TCP/IP Reference Model, after its two primary protocols. It was first described by Cerf and Kahn (1974), and later refined and defined as a standard in the Internet community (Braden, 1989). The design philosophy behind the model is discussed by Clark (1988). Given the DoD’s worry that some of its precious hosts, routers, and internetwork gateways might get blown to pieces at a moment’s notice by an attack from the Soviet Union, another major goal was that the network be able to survive loss of subnet hardware, without existing conversations being broken off. In other words, the DoD wanted connections to remain intact as long as the source and destination machines were functioning, even if some of the machines or transmission lines in between were suddenly put out of operation. Furthermore, since applications with divergent requirements were envisioned, ranging from transferring files to real-time speech transmission, a flexible architecture was needed. The Link Layer

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