They used assembly language instead of machine language .The use of
assembly language helped the programmer to specify instructions in the form of words. The
main characteristic of second generation computers was that they used the stored program
concept, i.e. the instructions were stored in the memory of the computer. These computers
usemagnetic tapes and magnetic disks as external storage devices.IBM 1620, PDP8 and
CDC1604 are examples of second generation computers.
They were characterized by the development of the integrated circuit (IC).
An IC is a silicon chip that embeds an electronic circuit, which comprises several components,
such as transistors. The use of ICs had increased the speed and efficiency of the computers to a
significant extent. Third generation computers include IBM 370, PDP11 and CDC7600 etc.
Fourth generation computers use Large Scale Integration (LSI) circuits and
Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) circuits in the construction of computing components. LSI
and VLSI circuits were further integrated on a single silicon chip, termed as microprocessor,
containing control logic and memory. The Intel 4004 chip was the first microprocessor for the
computers of this generation. The major change in the fourth generation of computers was seen
in the replacement of magnetic core memories by semiconductor memories.
For enabling connection and communication among multiple computers at one time they use
two types of high speed computer networking. The first one is the Local Area Network (LAN),
where multiple computers in a local area are connected and allowed to communicate among
them. The second type of networking is the Wide Area Network (WAN), which facilitates
connection and communication of hundreds of computers located across multiple
locations.Fourth generation of computers used high-level programming languages. They have
large primary and secondary storage memory. Examples are IBM 4300 and ICL 2900.
Fifth generation of computers is characterized by the Ultra Large
ScaleIntegration technology, which is more powerful as well as faster than the microprocessors
used by the computers of the fourth generation.The PCs in the fifth generation have become
portable, which are much smaller than the fourth generation PCs. There are some computing