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  • Guru Ghasidas Viswavidhyalaya - GGV
  • Master of Computer Applications
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ArTIFICIAL INTELLIgENCE Introduction: Definitions and approaches, Foundation of A.I. , Challenges in AI, Area and Applications of A.I., Intelligent Agents:meaning, types, environments, examples. Problem Solving: Problem solving as state space search, production system, writing production system and solution for a Water jug problem; some AI classical problems (statements only) cannibal missionaries, tower of Hanoi, tic tac toe, 8-puzzle, Search techniques: Breadth First, and Depth-first, Best-First Search, Hill-climbing, Heuristics, A* algorithm, local and global maxima(minima). Knowledge Representation and Reasoning: Predicate and prepositional logic, conversion of sentences to wffs of predicate logic, Resolution, clause form, Skolem functions, Unification, Resolution in Propositional and predicate logic, Semantic Nets. Pattern Recognition: Meaning of pattern, Pattern Recognition, Classification, Supervised & Unsupervised Learning of classifiers, K-NN, KMEANS algorithms. Expert Systems: Introduction, Advantages, components and participants in an expert system, Application Readings: 1. Artificial Intelligence: E. Rich and K. Knight, Tata McGraw Hill. 2. Artificial Intelligence: A New Synthesis By Nilsson, Morgan Kaufmann. 3. Pattern Classification 2nd Edition By R.O. Duda, Hart, Stork (2001) ,John Wiley, New York. 4. Pattern Recognition : Technique and Applications By Shinghal (2006) ,Oxford University Press, New Delhi. By Mr. UMESH KUMAr, MCA (ggU) PAgE | 2

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Unit – 1 Introduction Artificial Intelligence   Artificial+ intelligence = non natural = ability to understand learn & think. The science and engineering of making intelligent machine, especially intelligent computer program.  Artificial intelligence is a way of making a computer – controlled robot. Or software thinks intelligently.  Artificial intelligence is a special branch of computer science or set of techniques and approaches to solve those problems that normally requires human intelligence.  Artificial intelligence is the art of creating machines that perform functions that require intelligence when perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people.  In the similar manner the intelligent humans think.  It is the study of how to make computers do things which, at the moment, people do better.  Artificial intelligence is the study and design of intelligent agent, where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its change of success.  It leads four important categories. The term AI is defined by each author in own way which falls into 4 categories.  The system that think like human  System that act like humans  System that think rationally  System that act rationally Application of AI Detail of following applications, there are some special application of AI  Finance  Medical  Industries  Telecom  Telephone maintained  Transport  Entertainment  Pattern recognition  Robotics  Data mining  Natural language processing  Speech recognition  Game playing  Air Travel Speech Processing  Expert system By Mr. UMESH KUMAr, MCA (ggU) PAgE | 3

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 Computer vision Some application are defined  Game playing – AI plays critical role in strategies game such as chess, poker, tic-tac tac toe etc. where machine an think of large number of possible position based on heuristic knowledge  Natural language processing – it is possible is interact with the computer comput that understands nature language spoken by human  Expert system – there are some applications which integrated machine, software and special information to impart reasoning and advising. They provide explanation and advice to the users.  Speech recognitio recognition – some intelligent system are capable of hearing and comprehending the language in terms of sentence and their meaning which a human talk to it. Intelligent Agents-: Agents -: in our daily life ,an agent is commonly a person who can do our job usually on o some obligation. Artificial intelligence is defined as study of rational agent. A rational agent could be anything which makes decisions, like a person , firm , machine, or software. Must first specify the setting for intelligent agent design.  Performance nce measure : safe, fast, legal, comfortable trip, maximize profits.  Environment : Roads, other traffic, pedestrians, customers, stray animals, road works,..  Actuators:steering steering wheel accelerator , brake, signal , horn, voice synthesizer or display screen,..  Sensors: Cameras, saner, speedometer, GPS, odometer, engine sensors , keyboard or microphone microphone.  Example -:: taxi driver By Mr. UMESH KUMAr, MCA (ggU) ( PAgE | 4

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     A human agent has ears, and others organs for sensors, and hand ,legs, mouth ,and other body parts for effectors. A robotic agent substitutes stitutes cameras and infrared range finders for the sensors and various motors for the effectors. A software agent has encoded bit strings as it percepts and actions. Agents which can transform percepts into actions rationally. Agent = architecture + progr program. Types of Agent programs: programs:Simple Reflex Agent-:  They choose actions only based on the current percept.  Structure of a simple reflex agent in schematic from ,showing how the condition – action rules allow the agent to make the connection from percep perceptt to action.  They are rational only if a correct decision is made only on the basis of current precept.  Their environment is completely observable.  Condition-Action Action rules :– it is rule that maps a state to an action. Problems with simple reflex agents are:  Very limited intelligence.  No knowledge of non – perceptual parts of state.  Usually too big to generate and store.  If there occurs any change in the environment, then the collection of rules need to be updated. By Mr. UMESH KUMAr, MCA (ggU) ( PAgE | 5

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