Progress of Coverage
Overview on environment and importance of environmental science. Basic idea
on different terminologies: pollutants, contaminant, receptor, threshold limit value
Components of Earth - Lithosphere, atmosphere, biosphere (the life zone of the
earth) and hydrosphere. Different layers ofatmosphere (troposphere,
stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, (troposphere, stratosphere,
mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere, magnetosphere, pauses)
and their composition. Concept of black body radiation and albedo. Variation of
temperature (in atmosphere) with height (concept of lapse rate).
Structural components and chemical composition of lithosphere (crust-upper
mantle- lower mantle- outer core-inner core), components of hydrosphere
(surface water-oceans and seas - lakes and artificial water tanks, glaciers and
permanent snow cover, underground water). Different components (living
organisms, atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere) and composition
(Biomes- Terrestrial biomes- Aquatic biomes) of Biosphere.
Atmospheric pollutants –their types (primary, secondary and criteria), sources
(stationary and area sources, mobile sources, agricultural sources, natural
sources) and effects.
Pollution due to SOx, NOx, PAN, and Smog
Some important environmental issues due to air pollution: Depletion of ozone
layer, Green-house effect, Acid Rain
Controlling measures for air pollution cyclone separator, baghouse separator,
scrubber, electrostatic precipitator, catalytic converter)
Water pollutants – their types [oxygen demandingwastes, infectious agents,
VOC, petroleum products, pesticides and herbicides, heavy metals, hazardous
wastes (toxic, corrosive, reactive, ignitable), nutrients, sediment, thermal),
sources (Point sources and nonpoint sources) and effects.
Analysis of water Quality parameters (pH,DO, BOD,alkalinity, hardness, turbidity,
Water treatment (sewage and waste water) – Primary treatment (removal by