S.l.No 01 Topic Overview on Environment 02 Air Pollution 03 Water Pollution Progress of Coverage Overview on environment and importance of environmental science. Basic idea on different terminologies: pollutants, contaminant, receptor, threshold limit value (TLV), sink. Components of Earth - Lithosphere, atmosphere, biosphere (the life zone of the earth) and hydrosphere. Different layers ofatmosphere (troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, (troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere, magnetosphere, pauses) and their composition. Concept of black body radiation and albedo. Variation of temperature (in atmosphere) with height (concept of lapse rate). Structural components and chemical composition of lithosphere (crust-upper mantle- lower mantle- outer core-inner core), components of hydrosphere (surface water-oceans and seas - lakes and artificial water tanks, glaciers and permanent snow cover, underground water). Different components (living organisms, atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere) and composition (Biomes- Terrestrial biomes- Aquatic biomes) of Biosphere. Atmospheric pollutants –their types (primary, secondary and criteria), sources (stationary and area sources, mobile sources, agricultural sources, natural sources) and effects. Pollution due to SOx, NOx, PAN, and Smog Some important environmental issues due to air pollution: Depletion of ozone layer, Green-house effect, Acid Rain Controlling measures for air pollution cyclone separator, baghouse separator, scrubber, electrostatic precipitator, catalytic converter) Water pollutants – their types [oxygen demandingwastes, infectious agents, VOC, petroleum products, pesticides and herbicides, heavy metals, hazardous wastes (toxic, corrosive, reactive, ignitable), nutrients, sediment, thermal), sources (Point sources and nonpoint sources) and effects. Analysis of water Quality parameters (pH,DO, BOD,alkalinity, hardness, turbidity, temperature,TDS). Water treatment (sewage and waste water) – Primary treatment (removal by
Environment Environment is defined as everything that surrounds us. It essentially includes two parts (a) Physical Conditions: Physical conditions are suchinvolving as air, water, landphysics, form etc, Definition: Environmental Science is multi-disciplinary science chemistry, life which are interlinked with the survival the ecosystem science, agriculture, medical science, public health,ofsanitary engineeringand etc. development of an individual and community. Social andofcultural and cultural conditions Environmental It(b) is the science chemical conditions: phenomena inSocial theScience environment. In broad sense, it are is thesuch studyas of the ethics, aesthetics, economics etc. on which the behavior of an individual or community depends sources reactions transport effect and fate of chemical species in the air water and soil and the human activity upon these. Therefore, an understanding of the basic concepts of environmental chemistry is essential not only for all chemists but also for non-chemists engaged in environmental science, engineering and management.
Environmental Segments Earth is the only planet on which life exists. It consists of three components Lithosphere (Land), Hydrosphere (Water) and Atmosphere (Air) The environment consists of various segments like Life originated and evolved because of this unique combination of the three Atmosphere, components and was ideal and favourable for life. Hydrosphere, Lithosphere and The life supporting zone of the earth where atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere Biosphere meet, interact and make life possible, is known as biosphere. The lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere are non-living components of the environment and are known as abiotic.
Atmosphere The atmosphere plays a vital role for the survival of life in this planet which can be described as follows i) The atmosphere is the protective blanket of gases which is surrounding the earth. It protects the earth from the hostile environment of outer space. ii) It absorbs the IR radiations emitted by the sun and re-emitted from the earth and controls the temperature of the earth. iii) It allows the transmission of significant amounts of radiation only in the regions of 300-2500 nm (near UV, visible and near IR) and 0.01-40 meters (radio waves) i.e. it filters tissue damaging UV radiation below 300 nm. iv) It acts as a source for CO2 for plant photosynthesis and O2 for respiration. v) It acts as a source of nitrogen for nitrogen fixing bacteria and ammonia producing plants. vi) The atmosphere transports water from ocean to land.