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Adhoc and Wireless Sensor Networks

by Tulasi MiriyalaTulasi Miriyala
Type: NoteCourse: MCA Specialization: Master of Computer ApplicationsOffline Downloads: 4Views: 106Uploaded: 16 days ago

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Tulasi Miriyala
Tulasi Miriyala
UNIT-1 INTRODUCTION Wireless means transmitting signals using radio waves as the medium instead of wires. Wireless technologies are used for tasks as simple as switching off the television or as complex as supplying the sales force with information from an automated enterprise application while in the field. Now cordless keyboards and mice, PDAs, pagers and digital and cellular phones have become part of our daily life. Wireless Technologies: Wireless technologies can be classified in different ways depending on their range. Each wireless technology is designed to serve a specific usage segment. The requirements for each usage segment are based on a variety of variables, including Bandwidth needs, Distance needs and Power. Wireless Wide Area Network (WWAN): This network enables you to access the Internet via a wireless wide area network (WWAN) access card and a PDA or laptop. These networks provide a very fast data speed compared with the data rates of mobile telecommunications technology, and their range is also extensive. Cellular and mobile networks based on CDMA and GSM are good examples of WWAN. Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN): These networks are very similar to WWAN except their range is very limited. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN): This network enables you to access the Internet in localized hotspots via a wireless local area network (WLAN) access card and a PDA or laptop. It is a type of local area network that uses high-frequency radio waves rather than wires to communicate between nodes. These networks provide a very fast data speed compared with the data rates of mobile telecommunications technology, and their range is very limited. Wi-Fi is the most widespread and popular example of WLAN technology. Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN): This network enables you to access the Internet and multimedia streaming services via a wireless region area network (WRAN). These networks provide a very fast data speed compared with the data rates of mobile telecommunication technology as well as other wireless network, and their range is also extensive. Wireless Communication – Bluetooth: Bluetooth wireless technology is a short range communications technology intended to replace the cables connecting portable unit and maintaining high levels of security. Bluetooth technology is based on Ad-hoc technology also known as Ad-hoc Pico nets, which is a local area network with a very limited coverage.
History of Bluetooth WLAN technology enables device connectivity to infrastructure based services through a wireless carrier provider. The need for personal devices to communicate wirelessly with one another without an established infrastructure has led to the emergence of Personal Area Networks (PANs).  Ericsson's Bluetooth project in 1994 defines the standard for PANs to enable communication between mobile phones using low power and low cost radio interfaces.   In May 1988, Companies such as IBM, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba joined Ericsson to form the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) whose aim was to develop a defacto standard for PANs.   IEEE has approved a Bluetooth based standard named IEEE 802.15.1 for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs). IEEE standard covers MAC and Physical layer applications. Bluetooth specification details the entire protocol stack. Bluetooth employs Radio Frequency (RF) for communication. It makes use of frequency modulation to generate radio waves in the ISM band. The usage of Bluetooth has widely increased for its special features.  Bluetooth offers a uniform structure for a wide range of devices to connect and communicate with each other.   Bluetooth technology has achieved global acceptance such that any Bluetooth enabled device, almost everywhere in the world, can be connected with Bluetooth enabled devices.   Low power consumption of Bluetooth technology and an offered range of up to ten meters has paved the way for several usage models.    Bluetooth offers interactive conference by establishing an adhoc network of laptops.  Bluetooth usage model includes cordless computer, intercom, cordless phone and mobile phones. WiMAX: WiMAX is one of the hottest broadband wireless technologies around today. WiMAX systems are expected to deliver broadband access services to residential and enterprise customers in an economical way.  Acronym for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access.   Based on Wireless MAN technology.   A wireless technology optimized for the delivery of IP centric services over a wide area.  A scalable wireless platform for constructing alternative and complementary broadband networks. A certification that denotes interoperability of equipment built to the IEEE 802.16 or compatible standard. The IEEE 802.16 Working Group develops standards that address two types of usage models −  o A fixed usage model (IEEE 802.16-2004). o A portable usage model (IEEE 802.16e). Generations of wireless network: 1G Technologies: 1G, which stands for "first generation," refers to the first generation of wireless telecommunication technology, more popularly known as cell phones. A set of wireless standards developed in the 1980's, 1G technology replaced 0G technology, which featured mobile radio telephones and such technologies as Mobile Telephone System (MTS), Advanced
Mobile Telephone System (AMTS), Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS), and Push to Talk (PTT). 0G network allows for much greater penetration intensity. 2G technologies: 2G technologies enabled the various mobile phone networks to provide the services such as text messages, picture messages and MMS (multi media messages). 2G technology is more efficient. 2G technology holds sufficient security for both the sender and the receiver. All text messages are digitally encrypted. This digital encryption allows for the transfer of data in such a way that only the intended receiver can receive and read it. Benefits of 2G technology: Is the voice clarity and reduces noise in the line. Digital signals are considered environment friendly. The use of digital data service assists mobile network operators to introduce short message service over the cellular phones. Digital encryption has provided secrecy and safety to the data and voice calls. The use of 2G technology requires strong digital signals to help mobile phones work. If there is no network coverage in any specific area, digital signals would be weak. 3G technologies: 3G technologies make use of TDMA and CDMA. 3G (Thrid Generation Technology) technologies make use of value added services like mobile television, GPS (global positioning system) and video conferencing. The basic feature of 3G Technology (Thrid Generation Technology) is fast data transfer rates. However this feature is not currently working properly because, ITU 200 is still making decision to fix the data rates. It is expected that 2mbit/sec for stationary users, while 348kbits when moving or traveling. ITU sell various frequency rates in order to make use of broadband technologies. Network authentication has won the trust of users, because the user can rely on its network as a reliable source of transferring data.3G technology is much flexible, because it is able to support the 5 major radio technologies. These radio technologies operate under CDMA, TDMA and FDMA.CDMA holds for IMT-DS (direct spread), IMT-MC (multi carrier). TDMA accounts for IMT-TC (time code), IMT-SC (single carrier). FDMA has only one radio interface known as IMT-FC or frequency code. Third generation technology is really affordable due to the agreement of industry. This agreement took pace in order to increase its adoption by the users. 3G (Thrid Generation Technology) system is compatible to work with the 2G technologies. 3G (Thrid Generation Technology)technologies holds the vision that they should be expandable on demand. 4G technology: When talking about 4G, question comes to our mind is what is 4G Technology. 4G is short for Fourth (4th) Generation Technology. 4G Technology is basically the extension in the 3G technology with more bandwidth and services offers in the 3G. But at this time nobody exactly knows the true 4G definition. Some people say that 4G technology is the future technologies that are mostly in their maturity period. The expectation for the 4G technology is basically the high quality audio/video streaming over end to end Internet Protocol. If the Internet Protocol (IP) multimedia sub-system movement achieves what it going to do, nothing of this possibly will matter. WiMAX or mobile structural design will become progressively more translucent, and therefore the acceptance of several architectures by a particular network operator ever more common.
Virtual private network (VPN): A virtual private network (VPN) is a technology that creates a safe and encrypted connection over a less secure network, such as the internet. VPN technology was developed as a way to allow remote users and branch offices to securely access corporate applications and other resources. To ensure safety, data travels through secure tunnels and VPN users must use authentication methods -- including passwords, tokens and other unique identification methods -to gain access to the VPN.

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