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- Soil Mechanics - SM
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**Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University - AKTU**- Civil Engineering
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Study Notes on Properties of Soils - Study Notes 1 EXIT Day 3 | Soil Properties | Study Notes Properties of Soils Phase Diagram Soil mass is in general a three-phase system composed of solid, liquid and gaseous matter in a blended form with each other. But in phase diagram – for understanding, these three matters are shown separately. In supersaturated, state with change in water content volume of voids changes hence volume of soil changes. The diagrammatic representation of the different phases in a soil mass is called the "phase diagram". NEXT

Water content where, WW = Weight of power WS = Weight of solids There can be no upper limit to water content, i.e. w ≥ 0 Void ratio where, Vv = Volume of voids V = Total volume of soil Porosity cannot exceed 100% i.e., 0 < n < 100 NEXT

Void ratio is more important engineering property. Degree of Saturation where, Vw = Volume of water Vv = Volume of voids 0 ≤ S≤ 100 for perfectly dry soil : S = O for Fully saturated soil : S = 100% Air Content Va = Volume of air Sr + ac = 1 % Air Void na = n.ac Unit Weight A. Bulk unit weight Thus Bulk unit weight is total weight per unit volume. NEXT

B. Dry Unit Weight is the weight of soil solids per unit volume. Dry unit weight is used as a measure of denseness of soil. More dry unit weight means more compacted soil. C. Saturated unit weight: It is the ratio of total weight of fully saturated soil sample to its total volume. Submerged unit weight or Buoyant unit weight (γ): It is the submerged weight of soil solids per unit volume. = unit wt. of saturated soil γ = unit wt. of water Unit wt. of solids: γ is roughly 1/2 of saturated unit weight. Speciﬁc Gravity True/Absolute Special Gravity, G Speciﬁc gravity of soil solids (G) is the ratio of the weight of a given volume of solids to the weight of an equivalent volume of water at 4℃. G = 2.6 to 2.75 for inorganic solids = 1.2 to 1.4 for organic solids NEXT

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