IC Technologies, MOS & Bi CMOS Circuits
INTRODUCTION TO IC TECHNOLOGY
The development of electronics endless with invention of vaccum tubes and associated
electronic circuits. This activity termed as vaccum tube electronics, afterward the evolution of solid
state devices and consequent development of integrated circuits are responsible for the present status
of communication, computing and instrumentation.
• The first vaccum tube diode was invented by john ambrase Fleming in 1904.
• The vaccum triode was invented by lee de forest in 1906.
Early developments of the Integrated Circuit (IC) go back to 1949. German engineer
Werner Jacobi filed a patent for an IC like semiconductor amplifying device showing five
transistors on a common substrate in a 2-stage amplifier arrangement. Jacobi disclosed small
cheap of hearing aids.
Integrated circuits were made possible by experimental discoveries which showed that
semiconductor devices could perform the functions of vacuum tubes and by mid-20th-century
technology advancements in semiconductor device fabrication.
The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip was an enormous
improvement over the manual assembly of circuits using electronic components.
The integrated circuits mass production capability, reliability, and building-block approach to
circuit design ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete
An integrated circuit (IC) is a small semiconductor-based electronic device consisting of
fabricated transistors, resistors and capacitors. Integrated circuits are the building blocks of
most electronic devices and equipment. An integrated circuit is also known as a chip or
There are two main advantages of ICs over discrete circuits: cost and performance. Cost is
low because the chips, with all their components, are printed as a unit by photolithography rather
than being constructed one transistor at a time. Furthermore, much less material is used to construct a
packaged IC die than a discrete circuit. Performance is high since the components switch quickly and
consume little power (compared to their discrete counterparts) because the components are small and
positioned close together. As of 2006, chip areas range from a few square millimeters to around 350
mm2, with up to 1 million transistors per mm