×
Yes studying sucks... But NO, NOT more than FAILURE.
--Your friends at LectureNotes
Close

Note for Introduction to Information Technology - IIT By Umesh Kumar

  • Introduction to Information Technology - IIT
  • Note
  • Guru Ghasidas Viswavidhyalaya - GGV
  • Master of Computer Applications
  • 5 Topics
  • 4523 Views
  • 50 Offline Downloads
  • Uploaded 1 year ago
0 User(s)
Download PDFOrder Printed Copy

Share it with your friends

Leave your Comments

Text from page-3

Unit-I Introduction Basics concept of IT Information technology (IT) is a technology which uses computers to gather, process, store, protect, and transfer information. Today, it is common to use the term Information and communications technology (ICT) because it is unimaginable to work on a computer which is not connected to the network. The computer consists of: o Hardware – physical computer parts, palpable and visible o Software – set of commands that are "understandable" to the computer; instructions to its palpable parts, giving orders what to do Basic principle of computers: Data enters the computer through one or more input devices. The computer then processes the data and transmits the resulting data to output devices. Output devices can be human interfaces such as a screen or another electronic device such as a storage device or computer network. The system unit consists of the following components:  Motherboard - MBO o a computer "backbone" responsible for communication between components and transmission of information  Central Processing Unit - CPU o functions: command execution, data transmission, computer function control o o basic characteristics: • speed (in Mega Hertz (MHz), Giga Hertz (GHz)) • amount of memory (Cache in Bytes)  Random Access Memory – RAM o a memory container for programs that are currently running and data that is being processed o basic characteristics:  speed (in MHz, GHz)  capacity (in Bytes)  data rate class (DDR SDRAM, SDR SDRAM)  permanent memory: o Hard Disk Drive - HDD - device (memory) used for permanent data storage data is stored on magnetic platters; electromagnetic heads are used for reading and recording data with the exception of the newest disk types called Solid State Drive (SSD) o basic characteristics:  disk platters rotation speed (in RPM)  capacity (in GB)  connection interface (IDE, SATA) By Umesh KUmar (mCa) GGU 3 PaGe

Text from page-4

Concept of data and information, Data The row facts are called as data  The word “row” indicates that they have not been processed Ex- for example 55 is data or ram is data. Information -The processed data is knows as information Ex- marks 56 then it becomes information. Difference between Data and Information. Data Information 1. Raw facts Processed data 2. It is in unorganizated from It is in organizated order 3. Data doesn’t help decision making Information help in decision processes process making Generations and Classification of Computers Generation of computer: - Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, and more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices. In each new generation, the circuits became smaller and more advanced than the previous generation circuits. The miniaturization helped increase the speed, memory and power of computers. The various generations of computers an listed below :  First Generation(1946-1954)  Second Generation (1955 to 1964)  Third Generation (1965 to 1977)  Fourth Generation (1978 to 1990)  Fifth Generation (1991 to Present) First Generation Computers: The first generation computers used vacuum tubes which are large in size. The size of first generation computers was usually very large which occupied an entire room in a building.  These computers were very expensive and were limited in memory. Also these computers generated a lot of heat.  The language used for programming was machine language. UNIVAC is a famous example for first generation computer. A vacuum tube is as shown below:  The first generation (1946-1955) computers were slow, huge and expensive. In these computers, vacuum tubes were used as the basic components of CPU and memory.  These computers were mainly depended on batch operating system and punch cards. Magnetic tape and paper tape were used as output and input devices in this generation; By Umesh KUmar (mCa) GGU 4 PaGe

Text from page-5

Some of the popular first generation computers are;      ENIAC ( Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) EDVAC ( Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) UNIVACI( Universal Automatic Computer) IBM-701 IBM-650 Second Generation Computers: In the second generation computers, vacuum tubes are replaced by electronic component called transistor.  Transistors are small in size when compared to vacuum tubes.  These computers used transistors which were cheap, compact and consuming less power; it made transistor computers faster than the first generation computers.  In this generation, magnetic cores were used as the primary memory and magnetic disc and tapes were used as the secondary storage.  Assembly language and programming languages like COBOL and FORTRAN, and Batch processing and multiprogramming operating systems were used in these computers. Some of the popular second generation computers are;  IBM 1620  IBM 7094  CDC 1604  CDC 3600  UNIVAC 1108 Third Generation Computers  The third generation computers used integrated circuits (ICs) instead of transistors. A single IC can pack huge number of transistors which increased the power of a computer and reduced the cost.  Generally these ICs consist of thousands of transistors along with other electronic components embedded onto a single electronic circuit board by using technology called Large Scale Integration (LSI).  The computers also became more reliable, efficient and smaller in size. These generation computers used remote processing, time-sharing, multi programming as operating system.  The high-level programming languages like FORTRON-II TO IV, COBOL, PASCAL PL/1, ALGOL-68 were used in this generation. By Umesh KUmar (mCa) GGU 5 PaGe

Text from page-6

Some are;      of the popular third generation computers IBM-360 series Honeywell-6000 6000 series PDP(Personal ersonal Data Processor) IBM-370/168 TDC-316 Fourth Generation Computers  The fourth generation (1976 (1976-1990) 0) computers used very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits; a chip containing millions of transistors and other circuit elements.  These microprocessors essors were made by using Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology. These computers are powerful, smaller and cheaper when compared to previous generation computers.  These generation computers used real time, time sharing and distributed operating system. ystem. The programming languages like C, C++, DBASE were also used in this generation.  A microprocessor is as show Some of the popular fourth generation computers are;  DEC 10  STAR 1000  PDP 11  CRAY-1(Super 1(Super Computer)  CRAY-X-MP(Super MP(Super Computer) Fifth Generation ration Computers  In fifth generation (1991 (1991-till till date) computers, the VLSI technology was replaced with ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration).  It made possible the production of microprocessor chips with ten million electronic components.  This generation computers omputers used parallel processing hardware and AI (Artificial Intelligence) software. The programming languages used in this generation were C, C++, Java, .Net, etc. Some of the popular fifth generation computers are;  Desktop  Laptop  NoteBook  UltraBook  ChromeBook By Umesh KUmar (mCa) GGU 6 PaGe

Lecture Notes