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Shri Vishnu Engineering College for women :: Bhimavaram Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE & ORGANAZATION MPUTER ARCHITECTURE & ORGANAZATION UNIT-1 COMPUTER SYSTEM 1.Introduction At a top level, a computer consists of CPU (central processing unit), memory, and I/O components, with one or more modules of each type. These components are interconnected in some fashion to achieve the basic function of the computer, which is to execute programs. Thus, at a top level, we can describe a computer system by (1) describing the external behavior of each component—that is, the data and control signals that it exchanges with other components; and (2) describing the interconnection structure and the controls required to manage the use of the interconnection structure. This top-level view of structure and function is important because of its explanatory power in understanding the nature of a computer. Equally important is its use to understand the increasingly complex issues of performance evaluation. A grasp of the top-level structure and function offers insight into system bottlenecks, alternate pathways, the magnitude of system failures if a component fails, and the ease of adding performance enhancements. In many cases, requirements for greater system power and fail-safe capabilities are being met by changing the design rather than merely increasing the speed and reliability of individual components. 1.1Computer Components All contemporary computer designs are based on concepts developed by John von Neumann at the Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton. Such a design is referred to as the von Neumann architecture and is based on three key concepts: • Data and instructions are stored in a single read–write memory. • The contents of this memory are addressable by location, without regard to the type of data contained there. • Execution occurs in a sequential fashion (unless explicitly modified) from one instruction to the next. 1.2 Computer Function The basic function performed by a computer is execution of a program, which consists of a set of instructions stored in memory. The processor does the actual work by executing instructions specified in the program. This section provides an overview of the key elements of program execution. In its simplest form, instruction processing consists of two steps: The

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processor reads ( fetches) instructions from memory one at a time and executes each instruction. Program execution consists of repeating the process of instruction fetch and instruction execution. The instruction execution may involve several operations and depends on the nature of the instruction. Fig.1.1 Computer Components: A top level view 1.3 Interconnection Structures A computer consists of a set of components or modules of three basic types (processor, memory, I/O) that communicate with each other. In effect, a computer is a network of basic modules. Thus, there must be paths for connecting the modules. The collection of paths connecting the various modules is called the interconnection structure. The design of this structure will depend on the exchanges that must be made among modules. The types of exchanges that are needed by indicating the major forms of input and output for each module type: • Memory: Typically, a memory module will consist of N words of equal length. Each word is assigned a unique numerical address (0, 1, . . . ,N – 1). A word of data can be read from or written into the memory.The nature of the operation is indicated by read and write control signals.The location for the operation is specified by an address. • I/O module: From an internal (to the computer system) point of view, I/O is functionally similar to memory.There are two operations, read and write. Further, an I/O module may control more than one external device.We can refer to each of the interfaces to an external

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device as a port and give each a unique address (e.g., 0, 1, . . . ,M– 1). In addition, there are external data paths for the input and output of data with an external device. Finally, an I/O module may be able to send interrupt signals to the processor. • Processor: The processor reads in instructions and data, writes out data after processing, and uses control signals to control the overall operation of the system. It also receives interrupt signals. Fig.1.2 Computer modules The preceding list defines the data to be exchanged. The interconnection structure must support the following types of transfers: • Memory to processor: The processor reads an instruction or a unit of data from memory. • Processor to memory: The processor writes a unit of data to memory. • I/O to processor: The processor reads data from an I/O device via an I/O module. • Processor to I/O: The processor sends data to the I/O device. • I/O to or from memory: For these two cases, an I/O module is allowed to exchange data directly with memory, without going through the processor, using direct memory access (DMA).

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1.4 Bus Interconnection A bus is a communication pathway connecting two or more devices. A key characteristic of a bus is that it is a shared transmission medium. Multiple devices connect to the bus, and a signal transmitted by any one device is available for reception by all other devices attached to the bus. If two devices transmit during the same time period, their signals will overlap and become garbled. Thus, only one device at a time can successfully transmit. Typically, a bus consists of multiple communication pathways, or lines. Each line is capable of transmitting signals representing binary 1 and binary 0. Over time, a sequence of binary digits can be transmitted across a single line. Taken together, several lines of a bus can be used to transmit binary digits simultaneously (in parallel).For example, an 8-bit unit of data can be transmitted over eight bus lines. Computer systems contain a number of different buses that provide pathways between components at various levels of the computer system hierarchy. A bus that connects major computer components (processor, memory, I/O) is called a system bus. The most common computer interconnection structures are based on the use of one or more system buses. 1.4.1 Bus Structure A system bus consists, typically, of from about 50 to hundreds of separate lines. Each line is assigned a particular meaning or function. Although there are many different bus designs, on any bus the lines can be classified into three functional groups: data, address, and control lines. In addition, there may be power distribution lines that supply power to the attached modules. The data lines provide a path for moving data among system modules. These lines, collectively, are called the data bus. The data bus may consist of 32, 64, 128, or even more separate lines, the number of lines being referred to as the width of the data bus. Because each line can carry only 1 bit at a time, the number of lines determines how many bits can be transferred at a time. The width of the data bus is a key factor in determining overall system performance. For example, if the data bus is 32 bits wide and each instruction is 64 bits long, then the processor must access the memory module twice during each instruction cycle. The address lines are used to designate the source or destination of the data on the data bus. For example, if the processor wishes to read a word (8, 16, or 32 bits) of data from memory, it puts the address of the desired word on the address lines. Clearly, the width of the address bus determines the maximum possible memory capacity of the system. Furthermore, the address lines are generally also used to address I/O ports. Typically, the higher-order bits are used to select a particular module on the bus, and the lower-order bits select a memory location or I/O port within the module. For example, on an 8-bit address bus, address 01111111 and below might reference locations in a memory module (module 0) with 128 words of memory, and address 10000000 and above refer to devices attached to an I/O module (module 1). The control lines are used to control the access to and the use of the data and address lines. Because the data and address lines are shared by all components, there must be a means of controlling their use. Control signals transmit both command and timing information among system modules. Timing signals indicate the validity of data and address information. Command signals specify operations to be performed. Typical control lines include

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