UNIT 1 Smart Grid A Smart Grid is an electricity Network based on Digital Technology that is used to supply electricity to consumers via Two-Way Digital Communication. This system allows for monitoring, analysis, control and communication within the supply chain to help improve efficiency, reduce the energy consumption and cost and maximise the transparency and reliability of the energy supply chain. Application of Smart Grid The areas of application of smart grids include: smart meters integration, demand management, smart integration of generated energy, administration of storage and renewable resources, using systems that continuously provide and use data from an energy network Give some of the benefits of Smart Grid Reduction in AT & C losses Reduction in CO2 Emission Enabling Energy Audit Reduction in Cost Billing Remote Load Control advantages of Smart Grid Improved Reliability Higher asset utilization Better integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and renewable energy Reduced operating costs for utilities Increased efficiency and conservation Lower greenhouse gas (GHG) and other emissions Pillars of Smart Grid Transmission Optimization Demand Side Management Distribution Optimization Asset Optimization Five Key Aspects of Smart Grid The Five Key aspects of smart grid development and deployment are, Computational Intelligence Power System Enhancement Communication and Standards Environment and Economics Test-bed
Features of Smart Grid Reliability Flexibility in Topology Efficiency Platform for advanced services some of the challenges faced presently by the Indian Electricity System Shortage of power Power Theft Poor access to electricity in Rural areas Huge losses in the Grid Inefficient Power Consumption Poor reliability Self-Healing A smart grid automatically detects and responds to routine problems and quickly recover sif they occur, minimizing downtime and financial loss. Self-healing concept important to the Energy Infrastructure A secure ―architected‖ sensing, communications, automation (control), and energy overlaid infrastructure as an integrated, reconfigurable, and electronically controlled system that will offer unprecedented flexibility and functionality, and improve system availability, security, quality, resilience and robustness.
Consumers Self-Healing Grid Fault Circuit Indicators Wind Transformer Monitors Voltage Regulators Solar Thermal, etc., HMI Reclosers Distribution Automation Smart Meter Smart Appliances Power Factor Correction Communication Network Software Analytics A smart grid automatically detects and responds to routine problems and quickly recovers if they occur, minimising downtime and financial loss. The Self-Healing Grid is a system comprised of sensors, automated controls, and advanced software that utilizes real-time distribution data to detect and isolate faults and to reconfigure the distribution network to minimize the customers impacted. One of the main goals of a Self-Healing Grid is to improve system reliability. This can be accomplished by reconfiguring the switches and reclosers installed on the distribution feeder to quickly isolate the faulted section of the feeder and re-establish service to as many customers as possible from alternate sources/feeders. Requirements of Self-HealingGrid: System topology representation Feeders with single restoration path, generally open ―tie switch‖ Pre-fault system status Switch status (upstream and downstream information for devices) Pre-fault system loading (capacity check for the restoration) Fault detection Based on recloser lockout status and reclosing counter value change, or substation breaker trip signal Downstream node of the lockout switch is the fault location
Fault isolation Downstream switch(es) of the fault location Load restoration Start from the downstream node of the isolation switches Benefits Allows utilities to focus investments on feeders that experience the most outages Fast implementation Initial low capital investment Target solution appropriate for problem feeders Smart Grid and the need of Smart Grid? A Smart Grid is an electricity network that can intelligently integrate the actions of all users connected to it – generators, consumers and those that do both – in order to efficiently deliver sustainable, economic and secure electricity supplies. System (Generation, Transmission, Distribution) with an advanced twoway communications system Enables real-time monitoring and control Provide greater visibility and transparency Consequently, enables cost reduction and efficiency improvement Smart Grid is based on Digital Technology that is used to supply electricity to consumers via Two-Way Digital Communication. This system allows for monitoring, analysis, control and communication within the supply chain to help improve efficiency, reduce the energy consumption and cost and maximise the transparency and reliability of the energy supply chain. The flow of electricity from utility to consumer becomes a two-way conversation, saving consumers money, energy, delivering more transparency in terms of end-user use, and reducing carbon emissions. Need for establishment of Smart Grid: A smart grid distribution system, whose objective is to develop a power grid more efficient and reliable, improving safety and quality of supply in accordance with the requirements of the digital age. Higher Penetration of renewable resources or distributed generation Extensive and effective communication overlay from generation to consumers Use of advanced sensors and high speed control Higher operating efficiency. Greater resiliency against attacks and natural disasters Automated metering and rapid power restoration Provided greater customer participation