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Note for Smart Grid - SG by Ayush Agrawal

  • Smart Grid - SG
  • Note
  • Electrical and Electronics Engineering
  • B.Tech
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Ayush Agrawal
Ayush Agrawal
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Text from page-2

           Features of Smart Grid Reliability Flexibility in Topology Efficiency Platform for advanced services  some of the challenges faced presently by the Indian Electricity System Shortage of power Power Theft Poor access to electricity in Rural areas Huge losses in the Grid Inefficient Power Consumption Poor reliability  Self-Healing A smart grid automatically detects and responds to routine problems and quickly recover sif they occur, minimizing downtime and financial loss.  Self-healing concept important to the Energy Infrastructure A secure ―architected‖ sensing, communications, automation (control), and energy overlaid infrastructure as an integrated, reconfigurable, and electronically controlled system that will offer unprecedented flexibility and functionality, and improve system availability, security, quality, resilience and robustness.

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Consumers Self-Healing Grid Fault Circuit Indicators Wind Transformer Monitors Voltage Regulators Solar Thermal, etc., HMI Reclosers Distribution Automation Smart Meter Smart Appliances Power Factor Correction Communication Network Software Analytics A smart grid automatically detects and responds to routine problems and quickly recovers if they occur, minimising downtime and financial loss. The Self-Healing Grid is a system comprised of sensors, automated controls, and advanced software that utilizes real-time distribution data to detect and isolate faults and to reconfigure the distribution network to minimize the customers impacted. One of the main goals of a Self-Healing Grid is to improve system reliability. This can be accomplished by reconfiguring the switches and reclosers installed on the distribution feeder to quickly isolate the faulted section of the feeder and re-establish service to as many customers as possible from alternate sources/feeders. Requirements of Self-HealingGrid: System topology representation  Feeders with single restoration path, generally open ―tie switch‖ Pre-fault system status  Switch status (upstream and downstream information for devices)  Pre-fault system loading (capacity check for the restoration) Fault detection  Based on recloser lockout status and reclosing counter value change, or substation breaker trip signal  Downstream node of the lockout switch is the fault location

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Fault isolation  Downstream switch(es) of the fault location Load restoration  Start from the downstream node of the isolation switches Benefits  Allows utilities to focus investments on feeders that experience the most outages  Fast implementation  Initial low capital investment  Target solution appropriate for problem feeders Smart Grid and the need of Smart Grid? A Smart Grid is an electricity network that can intelligently integrate the actions of all users connected to it – generators, consumers and those that do both – in order to efficiently deliver sustainable, economic and secure electricity supplies.  System (Generation, Transmission, Distribution) with an advanced twoway communications system  Enables real-time monitoring and control  Provide greater visibility and transparency  Consequently, enables cost reduction and efficiency improvement Smart Grid is based on Digital Technology that is used to supply electricity to consumers via Two-Way Digital Communication. This system allows for monitoring, analysis, control and communication within the supply chain to help improve efficiency, reduce the energy consumption and cost and maximise the transparency and reliability of the energy supply chain. The flow of electricity from utility to consumer becomes a two-way conversation, saving consumers money, energy, delivering more transparency in terms of end-user use, and reducing carbon emissions. Need for establishment of Smart Grid: A smart grid distribution system, whose objective is to develop a power grid more efficient and reliable, improving safety and quality of supply in accordance with the requirements of the digital age.  Higher Penetration of renewable resources or distributed generation  Extensive and effective communication overlay from generation to consumers  Use of advanced sensors and high speed control  Higher operating efficiency.  Greater resiliency against attacks and natural disasters  Automated metering and rapid power restoration  Provided greater customer participation

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Presently the Indian Electricity System faces a number of challenges such as:  Shortage of power  Power Theft  Poor access to electricity in Rural areas  Huge losses in the Grid  Inefficient Power Consumption  Poor reliability To overcome these problems; smart grid is needed. benefits of Smart Grid  Self-Healing :A smart grid automatically detects and responds to routine problems and quickly recovers if they occur, minimizing downtime and financial loss.  Resists Attack: A smart grid has security built in from the ground up.  Motivates and Includes the Consumer: A smart grid gives all consumers industrial, commercial, and residential-visibility in to real-time pricing, and affords them the opportunity to choose the volume of consumption and price that best suits their needs.  Reduction in AT & C losses  Reduction in CO2 Emission  Enabling Energy Audit  Reduction in Cost Billing  Remote Load Control  Shifting of Peak requirement to non-peak time [Peak Shaving]  Integration of Renewable Energy  Clean Energy Development.  ProvidesPower Quality  Optimizes Assets and Operates Efficiently  Safety, Reliable and Efficient  Improved National Security  Improved Environmental Conditions  Improved Economic Growth Smart Grid drivers? Drivers of Smart Grid  Increasing demand:Information and communications technology, Measurement and control Demand response, Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI)  High Aggregate Technical &Non-Technical, Losses:18%-62%  Ageing Assets: Transformers, Feeders etc.,  Grid to carry more power: Need for, Reliability and greater Security  Billing and collections: Profitability of distribution companies  Energy mix: Need for Renewable Energy [Hydro Power, Solar Thermal Energy, Wind, Biomass, Biogas ] to reduce carbon footprint

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