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Note for Smart Grid - SG by Ayush Agrawal

  • Smart Grid - SG
  • Note
  • Electrical Engineering
  • B.Tech
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Ayush Agrawal
Ayush Agrawal
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Smart Grid Notes Page 1

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Smart Grid – The new paradigm Lecture Notes By Dr A K Tiwari Central Training Institute Jabalpur Smart Grid Notes Page 2

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Contents 1. Smart Grid – The new paradigm 4 2. IT Layer 12 3. Communication Layer 21 4. Advanced Metering Infrastructure 34 5. Interoperability and Standards for Smart Grid 37 6. Phasor Measurement Unit 45 7. Technologies for distributed generation 48 8. References 52 Smart Grid Notes Page 3

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1. Smart Grid – The new paradigm 1 Introduction 1.1 Background The economic activity of any country supported by industrial growth, citizen‘s life style, agriculture, trade and research is an impetus for sustained energy demand more in the form of electrical energy. Indian electrical energy generation was about 1600 MW in 1950s and 180000 MW in 2011. The augmentation is phenomenal but inadequate to meet the demand. This is typical situation in many countries. As per reports the current energy path is unsustainable and the world will need at least 50% more energy in 2030 than it uses today and since most of this energy is emanating from fossil fuels the carbon emissions are set to follow a similar track1. This brings to the fore the inter dependence of economic activity, energy demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need for embracing low carbon energy through an innovative approach towards energy generation, distribution and utilization is found to be the key for the much needed transformation in the energy and power sector. This is the essence of the much talked about ―Smart Grid‖ perceived as panacea for the energy problem. The smart grid is a fall out of the growing concern on energy security, climate change and the urgency to embrace in a big way the renewable form of energy sources. 1.2 About Smart Grid The word smart grid has many definitions. Simply put, it is the integration of information and communication technology in to electric transmission and distribution networks. The smart grid is “an automated, widely distributed energy delivery network characterized by a two-way flow of electricity and information, capable of monitoring and responding to changes in everything from power plants to customer preferences to individual appliances.” It may be looked upon as a reform process by which the balance is accomplished between available energy and demand by putting in place appropriate policies and operational framework. The Fig-1 depicts a smart grid scenario. Courtesy - IEEE Fig. 1 Smart Grid Scenario Smart Grid Notes Page 4

Lecture Notes