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Note for Basics of Mechanical Engineering - BME By K.Sagar Minz

  • Basics of Mechanical Engineering - BME
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BASIC MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 2-0-0 For 1st Semester Code (RBM1B001) For 2 nd Semester Code (RBM2B001) MODULE-I (8 classes) Thermodynamics:​ Systems, Properties, Process, State, Cycle, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Zeroth Law, First law and Second Law of Thermodynamics, Basic Concept of Entropy, Properties of ideal gas., Properties of pure substances, Steam formation, Types of Steam, Enthalpy, Specific volume, Internal energy and dryness fraction of steam, use of Steam tables. Related numericals. MODULE-II (6 classes) Application of Thermodynamics:​ Air compressors, Steam Power Plant, Refrigerators and Heat pump, I.C. Engines (Brief Description of different components of above mentioned systems and working principles with Schematic diagram only) MODULE-III (5 Classes) Basic Power transmission devices:​ Belt, Rope, Gear drives.Coupling, clutch, brakes. (Working principle only) Introduction to Robotics: Robot anatomy, joints and links and common robot configurations MODULE-IV (5 Classes) Mechanical Measurements:​ Temperature, pressure, velocity, flow, strain, force, torque measurements. (Working principle only). Text books i. Basic Mechanical Engineering by Pravin Kumar, Pearson ii. Basic Mechanical Engineering by A R Israni, P K Shah, BS Publications iii. Text book of Elements of Mechanical Engineering, S T Murthy, Universities press iv. Basic and applied Thermodynamics by P. K. Nag, Tata McGraw Hill Reference books i. Basic Mechanical Engineering by .D. Mishra, P.K Parida, S.S.Sahoo, India Tech Publishing company ii. Elements of Mechanical Engineering by J K Kittur and G D Gokak, Willey iii. Basic Mechanical Engineering by BasantAgrawal, C M Agrawal, Willey iv. Engineering Thermodynamics by P. Chattopadhaya, Oxford University Press

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MODULE-I (8 classes) Thermodynamics:​ Systems, Properties, Process, State, Cycle, Internal energy, Enthalpy, Zeroth Law, First law and Second Law of Thermodynamics, Basic Concept of Entropy, Properties of ideal gas., Properties of pure substances, Steam formation, Types of Steam, Enthalpy, Specific volume, Internal energy and dryness fraction of steam, use of Steam tables. Related numericals. Thermodynamics: Thermodynamics is the science that deals with the conversion of heat into mechanical  energy. It is based upon observations of common experience, which have been  formulated into thermodynamic laws. These laws govern the principles of energy  conversion. The applications of the thermodynamic laws and principles are found in all  fields of energy technology, notably in steam and nuclear power plants, internal  combustion engines, gas turbines, air conditioning, refrigeration, gas dynamics, jet  propulsion, compressors,  chemical process plants, and direct energy conversion devices.    Laws of Thermodynamics:  Generally thermodynamics contains four laws;  Zeroth law:​ d ​ eals with thermal equilibrium and establishes a concept of temperature.  The First law: t​ hrows light on concept of internal energy.  The  Second  law:  indicates  the  limit  of  converting  heat  into  work  and  introduces  the  principle of increase of entropy.  Third law:​ defines the absolute zero of entropy.  System:   System is the fixed quantity of matter and/or the region that can be  separated from everything else by a well-defined boundary/surface.  Thermodynamic system is the system on which thermodynamic  investigation is done. The surface separating the system and surroundings  is known as the control surface or system boundary. The control surface 

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may be movable or fixed. Everything beyond the system is the  surroundings. A system of fixed mass is referred to as a closed system.  When there is flow of mass through the control surface, the system is  called an open system. An isolated system is a closed system that does  not interact in any way with its surroundings.    Internal Energy:  The Internal Energy (U) of a system is the total energy content of the  system. It is the sum of the kinetic, potential, chemical, electrical, and all  other forms of energy possessed by the atoms and molecules of the  system. The Internal Energy (U) is path independent and depends only on  temperature for an ideal gas. Internal energy may be stored in the system in  following forms: Kinetic energy of molecules Molecular vibrations and  rotations Chemical bonds that can be released during chemical reaction  Potential energy of the constituents of the system    Enthalpy:   the sum of the i​ nternal energy​ and the product of the pressure and  volume of a t​ hermodynamic​ system. Enthalpy is an energy-like  property or state function—it has the dimensions of ​energy​ (and is  thus measured in units of j​ oules​ or e ​ rgs​), and its value is determined  entirely by the ​temperature​, p ​ ressure​, and c ​ omposition​ of the  system and not by its history. In symbols, the enthalpy, H ​ ,​ equals the  sum of the internal energy, E ​ ​, and the product of the pressure, P ​ ,​ and  volume, ​V​, of the system: H ​ ​=E ​ ​+P ​ V​.    The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics  The zeroth law is incredibly important as it allows us to define the  concept of a temperature scale.  If two systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, they are  also in thermal equilibrium with each other. 

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Systems and surroundings Thermodynamics in biology refers to the study of energy transfers that occur in molecules or collections of molecules. When we are discussing thermodynamics, the particular item or collection of items that we’re interested in (which could be something as small as a cell, or as large as an ecosystem) is called the s ​ ystem​, while everything that's not included in the system we’ve defined is called the surroundings​.

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