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Note for Introduction to Management and Functions - IMF By Ankit Raut

  • Introduction to Management and Functions - IMF
  • Note
  • Biju Patnaik University of Technology BPUT - BPUT
  • Computer Science Engineering
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Ankit Raut
Ankit Raut
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Subject: Management Concepts and Organizational Behaviour Subject Code: MC-101 Author: Dr. Karam Pal Lesson No: 01 Vetter: Prof. Harbhajan Bansal INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT Objective: The objectives of this lesson are to enable to define management; to describe the nature and scope of management; to know the difference between management and administration; to understand various levels of management; and to describe the various skills that are necessary for successful managers. Lesson Structure: 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Definition of Management 1.3 Characteristics of Management 1.4 Management Functions/ the Process of Management 1.5 Nature of Management 1.6 Management Vs. Administration 1.7 Levels of Management 1.8 Managerial Skills 1.9 The Manager and his job 1.10 Principles of Management 1.11 Significance of Management 1.12 Summary 1.13 Self Assessment Questions 1.14 Suggested Readings

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1.1 INTRODUCTION A business develops in course of time with complexities. With increasing complexities managing the business has become a difficult task. The need of existence of management has increased tremendously. Management is essential not only for business concerns but also for banks, schools, colleges, hospitals, hotels, religious bodies, charitable trusts etc. Every business unit has some objectives of its own. These objectives can be achieved with the coordinated efforts of several personnel. The work of a number of persons are properly co-ordinated to achieve the objectives through the process of management is not a matter of pressing a button, pulling a lever, issuing orders, scanning profit and loss statements, promulgating rules and regulations. Rather it is the power to determine what shall happen to the personalities and happiness of entire people, the power to shape the destiny of a nation and of all the nations which make up the world." Peter F. Drucker has stated in his famous book "The Practice of Management" that, "the emergence of management as an essential, a distinct and leading social institution is a pivotal event in social history. Rarely in human history has a new institution proved indispensable so quickly and even less often as a new institution arrived with so little opposition, so little disturbance and so little controversy?" Management is a vital aspect of the economic life of man, which is an organised group activity. It is considered as the indispensable institution in the modern social organization marked by scientific thought and technological innovations. One or the other form of management is essential wherever human efforts are to be undertaken collectively to satisfy wants through some productive activity, occupation or profession. 2

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It is management that regulates man's productive activities through coordinated use of material resources. Without the leadership provided by management, the resources of production remain resources and never become production. Management is the integrating force in all organized activity. Whenever two or more people work together to attain a common objective, they have to coordinate their activities. They also have to organize and utilize their resources in such a way as to optimize the results. Not only in business enterprises where costs and revenues can be ascertained accurately and objectively but also in service organizations such as government, hospitals, schools, clubs, etc., scarce resources including men, machines, materials and money have to be integrated in a productive relationship, and utilized efficiently towards the achievement of their gals. Thus, management is not unique to business organizations but common to all kinds of social organizations. Management has achieved an enviable importance in recent times. We are all intimately associated with many kinds of organizations, the most omnipresent being the government, the school and the hospital. In fact, more and more of major social tasks are being organized on an institution basis. Medical care, education, recreation, irrigation, lighting, sanitation, etc., which typically used to be the concern of the individual or the family, are now the domain of large organizations. Although, organizations other than business do not speak of management, they all need management. It is the specific organ of all kinds of organizations since they all need to utilize their limited resources most efficiently and effectively for the achievement of their goals. It is the most vital forces in the successful performance of all kinds of organized social activities. 3

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Importance of management for the development of underdeveloped economies has been recognized during the last one and a half decade. There is a significant gap between the management effectiveness in developed and underdeveloped countries. It is rightly held that development is the function not only of capital, physical and material resources, but also of their optimum utilization. Effective management can produce not only more outputs of goods and services with given resources, but also expand them through better use of science and technology. A higher rate of economic growth can be attained in our country through more efficient and effective management of our business and other social organizations, even with existing physical and financial resources. That is why it is now being increasingly recognized that underdeveloped countries are indeed somewhat inadequately managed countries. The emergence of management in modern times may be regarded as a significant development as the advancement of modern technology. It has made possible organization of economic activity in giant organizations like the Steel Authority of India and the Life Insurance Corporation of India. It is largely through the achievements of modern management that western countries have reached the stage of mass consumption societies, and it is largely through more effective management of our economic and social institutions that we can improve the quality of life of our people. It is the achievements of business management that hold the hope for the huge masses in the third world countries that they can banish poverty and achieve for themselves decent standards of living. 1.2 DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT Although management as a discipline is more than 80 years old, there is no common agreement among its experts and practitioners about its precise definition. In fact, this is so in case of all social sciences like psychology, 4

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