MATERIAL IS DEVELOPED BY MANAV SIR FOR THE STUDENTS OF B.TECH (MECHANICAL & CIVIL) 7TH SEM STUDENTS Module: I. Introduction Introduction to Management: Concepts, Definition, Functions, Levels of management, Skills and roles of a manager, Management Process, School Of Management Thoughts; Pre-Scientific, Classical, Behavioral and Modern. Types of Business Organizations, Merits and demerits. Public Organization. Module: II. Planning Nature and elements of planning, planning types, steps, MBA, MBE, planning premises, decision making process, decision making under risk and uncertainty, participation in decision making, creativity iin decision making, Module: III. Organizing and staffing Formal and informal, line and staff relationship, centralization vs decentralization, basic issues in organizing, work specialization, chain of commands, span of management, principles of organizing, organizational structure for departmentalization, Module: IV. Directing and controlling. Process, standards and benchmarking, control techniques, factors influencing control effectiveness, coordination, principles of coordination, interdependence. INTRODUCTION A business develops in course of time with complexities. With increasing complexities managing the business has become a difficult task. The need of existence of management has increased tremendously. Management is essential not only for business concerns but also for banks, schools, colleges, hospitals, hotels, religious bodies, charitable trusts etc. Every business unit has some objectives of its own. These objectives can be achieved with the coordinated efforts of several personnel. The work of a number of persons are properly co-ordinated to achieve the objectives through the process of management is not a matter of pressing a button, pulling a lever, issuing orders, scanning profit and loss statements, promulgating rules and regulations. Rather it is the power to determine what shall happen to the personalities and happiness of entire people, the power to shape the destiny of a nation and of all the nations which make up the world." Peter F. Drucker has stated in his famous book " The Practice of Management" that, "the emergence of management as an essential, a distinct and leading social institution is a pivotal event in social history. Rarely in human history has a new institution proved indispensable so quickly and even less often as a new institution arrived with so little opposition, so little disturbance and so little controversy?" Management is a vital aspect of the economic life of man, which is an organised group activity. It is considered as the indispensable institution in the modern social
organization marked by scientific thought and technological innovations. One or the other form of management is essential wherever human efforts are to be undertaken collectively to satisfy wants through some productive activity, occupation or profession. It is management that regulates man's productive activities through coordinated use of material resources. Without the leadership provided by management, the resources of production remain resources and never become production.. Management is the integrating force in all organized activity. Whenever two or more people work together to attain a common objective, they have to coordinate their activities. They also have to organize and utilize their resources in such a way as to optimize the results. Not only in business enterprises where costs and revenues can be ascertained accurately and objectively but also in service organizations such as government, hospitals, schools, clubs, etc., scarce resources including men, machines, materials and money have to be integrated in a productive relationship, and utilized efficiently towards the achievement of their gals. Thus, management is not unique to business organizations but common to all kinds of social organizations. Management has achieved an enviable importance in recent times. We are all intimately associated with many kinds of organizations, the most omnipresent being the government, the school and the hospital. In fact, more and more of major social tasks are being organized on an institution basis. Medical care, education, recreation, irrigation, lighting, sanitation, etc., which typically used to be the concern of the individual or the family, are now the domain of large organizations. Although, organizations other than business do not speak of management, they all need management. It is the specific organ of all kinds of organizations since they all need to utilize their limited resources most efficiently and effectively for the achievement of their goals. It is the most vital forces in the successful performance of all kinds of organized social activities. Importance of management for the development of underdeveloped economies has been recognized during the last one and a half decade. There is a significant gap between the management effectiveness in developed and underdeveloped countries. It is rightly held that development is the function not only of capital, physical and material resources, but also of their optimum utilization. Effective management can produce not only more outputs of goods and services with given resources, but also expand them through better use of science and technology. A higher rate of economic growth can be attained in our country through more efficient and effective management of our business and other social organizations, even with existing physical and financial resources. That is why it is now being increasingly recognized that underdeveloped countries are indeed somewhat inadequately managed countries. The emergence of management in modern times may be regarded as a significant development as the advancement of modern technology. It has made possible organization of economic activity in giant organizations like the Steel Authority of India and the Life Insurance Corporation of India. It is largely through the achievements of modern management that western countries have reached the stage of mass consumption societies, and it is largely through more effective management of our economic and social institutions that we can improve the
quality of life of our people. It is the achievements of business management that hold the hope for the huge masses in the third world countries that they can banish poverty and achieve for themselves decent standards of living. Concepts: 1. Management is a managerial process: Management is a process and not merely a body of individuals. Those who perform this process are called managers. The managers exercise leadership by assuming authority and direct others to act within the organisation. Management process involves planning, organising, directing and unifying human efforts for the accomplishment of given tasks. 2. Management is a social process- Management takes place through people. The importance of human factor in management cannot be ignored. A manager's job is to get the things done with the support and cooperation of subordinates. It is this human element which gives management its special character. 3. Management is action-based: Management is always for achieving certain objectives in terms of sales, profit, etc. It is a result-oriented concept and not merely an abstract philosophy. It gives importance to concrete performance through suitable actions. It is an action based activity. 4. Management involves achieving results through the efforts of others: Management is the art of getting the things done through others. Managers are expected to guide and motivate subordinates and get the expected performance from them. Management acts as an activating factor. 5. Management is a group activity: Management is not an isolated individual activity but it is a collective activity or an activity of a group. It aims at using group efforts for achieving objectives. Managers manage the groups and coordinate the activities of groups functioning in an organisation. 6. Management is intangible: Management is not directly visible but its presence is noticed in the form of concrete results. Management is intangible. It is like invisible spirit, which guides and motivates people working in a business unit. Management is like government, which functions but is not visible in physical form. 7. Management is aided, not replaced by computers: The computer is an extremely powerful tool of management. It helps a manager to widen his vision. The computer supplies ocean of information for important decisionmaking. The computer has unbelievable data processing and feedback facilities. This has enabled the manager to conduct quick analysis towards making correct decisions. A computer supports manager in his managerial work. However, it cannot replace managers in business. They were required in the past, at present and also in future. Their existence is absolutely essential in the management process. 8. Management is all pervasive: Management is comprehensive and covers all departments, activities and employees. Managers operate at different levels but their functions are identical. This indicates that management is a universal and all pervasive process. 9. Management is an art, science as well as a profession: Management is an art because certain skills, essential for good management, are unique to
individuals. Management is a science because it has an organised body of knowledge. Management is also a profession because it is based on advanced and cultivated knowledge. 10. Management aims at coordination of activities: Coordination is the essence of management. It gives one clear direction to the whole organisation and brings unity and harmony in the whole business unit. For such coordination, effective communication at all levels is essential. 11. Management is innovative: Management techniques are dynamic and innovative. They need to be adjusted as per the requirements of the situations. Another manager need not repeat the decisions of one manager. Similarly, a manager has to change his decisions under different situations. 12. Management has different operational levels: Every Organisation needs managers for managing business activities. The manager's job is basically the same at all levels. The managers at the higher levels have more important duties while managers at the lower levels have to perform routine functions i.e duties. 13. Management is different from ownership: Management is concerned with the management of business activities. Managers are not the owners but they manage the business on behalf of the owners. Separation of ownership and management is a special feature of modem business organisation. 14. Management has vast scope: The scope of management is quite comprehensive. It covers all aspects of business. The principles of management guide managers while managing various business activities. 15. Management is dynamic: Business is influenced by changes in economic, social, political technological and human resource. Management adjusts itself to the changing atmosphere making suitable forecasts and changes in the policies. Hence, management is treated as a dynamic activity. 16. Management aims at achieving predetermined objectives: Management is a meaningful activity. All organisations are essentially groups of individuals formed for achieving common objectives. An Organisation exists for the attainment of specific objectives. DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT Although management as a discipline is more than 80 years old, there is no common agreement among its experts and practitioners about its precise definition. In fact, this is so in case of all social sciences like psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, political science etc. As a result of unprecedented and breath-taking technological developments, business organizations have grown in size and complexity, causing consequential changes in the practice of management. Changes in management styles and practices have led to changes in management thought. Moreover, management being interdisciplinary in nature has undergone changes because of the developments in behavioural sciences, quantitative techniques, engineering and technology, etc.