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Note for Internet of Things - IOT By adi sahu

  • Internet of Things - IOT
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INTERNET OF THINGS MODULE-2 M2M Machine -to-Machine (M2M) refers to the communication or exchange of data between to two or more machines without human interfacing or interaction. The communication in M2M may be wired or wireless systems. The M2M uses a device such as sensor, RFID, meter, etc. to capture an ‘events’ like temperature, inventory level, etc., which is relayed through a network i.e., wireless, wired or hybrid to an application (software program), that translates the captured event into meaningful information. Unlike SCADA or other remote monitoring tools, M2M systems often use public networks and access methods -- for example, cellular or Ethernet -- to make it more cost-effective. M2M System Architecture The main components of M2M system are:1. M2M area networks 2. Communication networks 3. Application domains 4. M2M gateways.

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INTERNET OF THINGS MODULE-2 M2M area networks  M2M network area consists of machines or M2M nodes which communicate with each other. The M2M nodes embedded with hardware modules such as sensors, actuators and communication devices.  M2M uses communication protocol such as ZigBee, Bluetooth, Power line communication (PLC) etc. These communication protocols provide connectivity between M2M nodes within M2M area network.  The M2M nodes communicate with in one network it can’t communicate with external network node. To enable the communication between remote M2M area networks, M2M gateways are used. M2M Gateways  The Gateway module provides control and localization services for data collection. The gateways also double up in concentrating traffic to the operator’s core. It supports Bluetooth, ZigBee, GPRS capabilities.  M2M communication network serves as infrastructure for realizing communication between M2M gateway and M2M end user application or server. For this cellular network (GSM /CDMA), Wire line network and communication satellites may be used. Communication networks  The communication network provides the connectivity between M2M nodes and M2M applications.  It uses wired or wireless network such as LAN, LTE, WiMAX, satellite communication etc. Application domains  It contains the middleware layer where data goes through various application services and is used by the specific business-processing engines.  M2M applications will be based on the infrastructural assets that are provided by the operator. Applications may either target at end users, such as user of a specific M2M solution, or at other application providers to offer more refined building blocks by which they can build more sophisticated M2M solutions and services.

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INTERNET OF THINGS MODULE-2 Difference between IoT and M2M M2M and IoT both are used when electronic devices are connected and share data with each other. There are some differences between IoT and M2M based on technologies, system architectures and types of applications M2M IoT It is Machine to Machine communication and It’s Machine to Machine, Machine to sensors, or completely hardware based. Humans to Machines. And software based. M2M is a point to point communication and Its uses IP networks and protocols as the uses non –IP protocols. communication is multipoint. These devices don’t rely on internet. Devices required internet connections. Data can be stored locally Data can be stored locally and also in cloud Limited integration option devices must have Unlimited integration option, but requires a solutions corresponding communication standards that can manage all the communication Software-Defined Networking (SDN) The Conventional Networking Technologies has lot of Limitations with increases in number of distributed protocols these limitations are as: Complex Network Devices:- To meet business and technical needs over the last few decades, the industry has evolved networking protocols to deliver higher performance, high speeds and reliability which increases more number of protocols making the device complex. Due to complexity networks are made relatively static to minimize the risk of service disruption.  Management Overhead:- Network managers find it difficult to manage multiple network devices and interfaces from multiple vendors. Upgradation of network requires configuration changes in multiple devices such as switches, routers, firewalls, etc.  Limited Scalability:- The virtualization technologies (creation of several virtual machine using software called as hypervisors) used in cloud computing environments has increased the number of virtual host in the cloud. The analytics components of IoT applications exchange huge amount of data in virtual machines which require highly scalable which becomes difficult with conventional networks.

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INTERNET OF THINGS MODULE-2 This mismatch between market requirements and network capabilities has brought the industry to a tipping point. In response, the industry has created the Software-Defined Networking (SDN) architecture and is developing associated standards. Software-Defined Networking (SDN) SDN is defined as the physical separation of the networking architecture of control plane from the data plane, and centralizes the network controller. Basic concepts of SDN  Separate control logic from hardware switches  Define the control logic in a centralized manner  Control the entire network including individual switches  Communication between the application, control, and data planes are done through APIs.

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