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Note for Turbo Machines - TM by Akash Sharma

  • Turbo Machines - TM
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  • Mechanical Engineering
  • B.Tech
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ENERGY ENGINEERING 10ME53 ENERGY ENGINEERING Subject Code : 10ME53 IA Marks : 25 Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03 Total Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 PART – A UNIT -1 Steam Power Plant: Different Types of Fuels used for steam generation, Equipment for burning coal in lump form, strokers, different types, Oil burners, Advantages and Disadvantages of using pulverized fuel, Equipment for preparation and burning of pulverized coal, unit system and bin system. Pulverized fuel furnaces, cyclone furnace, Coal and ash handling, Generation of steam using forced circulation, high and supercritical pressures. 07 Hours UNIT -2 A Brief Account Of Benson, Velox Schmidt Steam Generators. Chimneys: Natural, forced, induced and balanced draft, Calculations and numericals involving height of chimney to produce a given draft. Cooling towers and Ponds. Accessories for the Steam generators such as Superheaters, De-superheater, control of superheaters, Economizers, Air pre-heaters and reheaters. 07 Hours UNIT -3 Diesel Engine Power Plant: Applications of Diesel Engines in Power field. Method of starting Diesel engines. Auxiliaries like cooling and lubrication system, filters, centrifuges, Oil heaters, intake and exhaust system, Layout of diesel power plant. 06 Hours UNIT -4 Hydro-Electric Plants: Hydrographs, flow duration and mass curves, unit hydrograph and numericals. Storage and pondage, pumped storage plants, low, medium and high head plants, Penstock, water hammer, surge tanks, gates and valves. General layout of hydel power plants. 06 Hours PART – B UNIT -5 Nuclear Power Plant: Principles of release of nuclear energy; Fusion and fission reactions. Nuclear fuels used in the reactors. Multiplication and thermal utilization factors.Elements of the nuclear reactor; moderator, control rod, fuel rods, coolants. Brief description of reactors of the following types-Pressurized water reactor, Boiling water reactor, Sodium graphite reactor, Fast Breeder reactor, Homogeneous graphite reactor and gas cooled reactor, Radiation hazards, Shieldings, Radio active waste disposal. 06 Hours Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, ACE Page 1

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ENERGY ENGINEERING 10ME53 UNIT -6 Solar Energy: Solar Extra terrestrial radiation and radiation at the earth surface, radiation-measuring instruments, working principles of solar flat plate collectors, solar pond and photovoltaic conversion (Numerical Examples). Wind Energy: Properties of wind, availability of wind energy in India, wind velocity and power from wind; major problems associated with wind power, wind machines; Types of wind machines and their characteristics, horizontal and vertical axis wind mills, coefficient of performance of a wind mill rotor (Numerical Examples). 08 Hours UNIT -7 Tidal Power: Tides and waves as energy suppliers and their mechanics; fundamental characteristics of tidal power, harnessing tidal energy, limitations. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Principle of working, Rankine cycle, problems associated with OTEC. Geothermal Energy Conversion: Principle of working, types of geothermal station with schematic diagram, problems associated with geothermal conversion, scope of geothermal energy. 06 Hours UNIT -8 Energy From Bio Mass: Photosynthesis, photosynthetic oxygen production, energy plantation. Bio Chemical Route: Biogas production from organic wastes by anaerobic fermentation, classification of bio gas plants, factors affecting bio gas generation. Thermo Chemical Route: Thermo chemical conversion on bio mass, types of gasifiers. 06 Hours TEXT BOOKS: 1. Power Plant Engineering, P. K. Nag Tata McGraw Hill 2 edn 2001. 2. Power Plant Engineering, Domakundawar, DhanpathRai sons. 2003 REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. Power Plant Engineering, R. K. Rajput, Laxmi publication, New Delhi. Principles of Energy conversion, A. W. Culp Jr., McGraw Hill. 1996 3. Non conventional Energy sources, G D RaiKhanna Publishers. 4. Non conventional resources, B H Khan TMH -2007 Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, ACE 2. Page 2

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ENERGY ENGINEERING 10ME53 CONTENTS UNITS PAGE NO. 1. STEAM POWER PLANT 4-35 2. STEAM GENERATOR 36-52 3. DIESEL ENGINE POWER PLANT 53-61 4. HYDRO ELECTRIC PLANTS 62-73 5. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT 74-83 6. SOLAR AND WIND ENERGY 84-92 7. TIDAL POWER, OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY, 93-104 & GEOTHERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION 8. ENERGY FROM BIO MASS Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, ACE 105-115 Page 3

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ENERGY ENGINEERING 10ME53 UNIT-1 STEAM POWER PLANT Introduction Steam power plants are producing about half of the total power requirement in India. In a steam Power plant, thermal energy is used to raise steam that is used to run steam turbines to produce mechanical energy. This mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy in a generator. Steam power plants are suitable for large scale production of electrical power. Selection of site for steam power plants There are many factors that are to be considered while selecting site for a hydel power plant. The important factors are as follows: 1) Availability of fuel 2) Transportation 3) Availability of water 4) Ash Disposal 5) Nature of land 6) Space Area 1. Availability of fuel: The site selected should have abundant sources of fuel (generally coal, petroleum or natural gas). A steam power plant using Coal as fuel needs about 1,500 tones of coal for every 100 MW of power produced. 2. Transportation: Though having a plant at the fuel source does not require transportation for fuel, it may be away from the place of use.This leads to high transmission costs and loss of power, hence possible to locate a site for economical power transmission and fuel transmission. Rope-ways or railway are the better choices of transportation at the interior places. Sea transportation is economical for plants and fuel source near sea shores. 3. Availability of water: A steam power plant requires high volumes of water for use as feed water, ash handling and mainly for condensing. About 50 to 60 thousand tones of water per houris required for every 100 MW of power developed, as cooling water and makeup water for the feed. A good quality of drinking water is also essential for the use of employees. 4. Ash Disposal: Generally the steam power plants produce ash about 20 to 30% of fuel burnt. The ash to be disposed may be several thousand tones a day. Hence the site selected should have provision for proper disposal of ash. 5. Nature of land: The soil of the site selected should have a good bearing capacity as it has to support huge structures and dynamic forces in operating conditions.A bearing capacity of 10 kgf/cm2is essential to set up a steam power plant. 6. Space Area: Steam power plants need the maximum space area all other power plants.They require larger space areas for coal yards, buildings, machinery & equipment, cooling towers, ash disposal and for residential purpose. About 500 acres of land is necessary for every 100 MW of power produced. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, ACE Page 4

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