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Note for Non-Conventional Energy Systems - NCES by Akash Sharma

  • Non-Conventional Energy Systems - NCES
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  • Mechanical Engineering
  • B.Tech
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NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES (10ME754) Unit-1 Introduction The word ‗energy‘ itself is derived from the Greek word ‗en-ergon, which means ‗in-work’ or work content. The work output depends on the energy input. Energy is the most basic infra-structure input required for economic growth & development of a country. Thus, with an increase in the living standard of human beings, the energy consumption also accelerated. A systemic study of various forms of energy & energy transformations is called energy science. While fossil fuels will be the main fuel for thermal power, there is a fear that they will get exhausted eventually in the next century. Therefore other systems based on nonconventional & renewable sources are being tried by many countries. These are solid, wind, sea, geothermal & bio-mass. The need for alternatives: 1. The average rate of increase of oil production in the world is declining & a peak in production may be reached around 2015. There after the production will decline gradually & most of the oil reserves of the world are likely to be consumed by the end of the present century. The serious nature of this observation is apparent when one notes that oil provides about 30% of the world‘s need for energy from commercial sources & that oil is the fuel used in most of the world‘s transportation systems. 2. The production of natural gas is continuing to increase at a rate of about 4% every year. Unlike oil, there has been no significant slowdown in the rate of increase of production. Present indications are that a peak in gas production will come around 2025, about 10 years after the peak in oil production. 3. As oil & natural gas becomes scarcer, a great burden will fall on coal. It is likely that the production of coal will touch a maximum somewhere around 2050. 4. Finally, it should be noted that in addition to supplying energy, fossil fuels are used extensively as feed stock material for the manufacture of organic chemicals. As resources deplete, the need for using fossil fuels exclusively for such purposes may become greater. India’s production & reserves of commercial sources: Coal: Coal is the end product of a natural process of decomposition of vegetable matter buried in swamps & out of contact with oxygen for Department of ME, ACE Rajesh N / Ravichandra K M Page 1

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NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES (10ME754) thousands of years. The word ‗coal‘ denotes a wide variety of solid fuels. The varieties in approximate order of their formation are peat, lignite, bituminous & anthracite coal. The rate of production of coal in India over the last 50 years is shown in fig (a). It can be seen that there has been an eleven-fold increase in production from 1951 to 2004 & that the average annual growth rate has been about 4.5%. In 2000, India‘s production was 300mt, which was about 6.7% of the world‘s production. India has fairly large reserves of coal. Fig.1. Annual production of coal in India [production rate (Mt/Year] v/s Year Year 1972 1981 1985 1992 2006 Table 1: Coal reserves in India (in Mt) Proved Indicated & inferred Total reserves reserves reserves Resources) 21360 59590 80950 27912 87490 115402 35030 120870 155900 64800 129000 193800 95866 157435 253301 ( Oil: The below fig.2. Represents presents data on the annual consumption of petroleum products in India (curve 3) from 1951 Department of ME, ACE Rajesh N / Ravichandra K M Page 2

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NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES (10ME754) onwards. It also shows the variation in the domestic production of crude oil (curve 1) & the import of crude (curve 2) over the years. Fig.2. Annual production, import & consumption of oil in India [Production Rate (Mt/Year) v/s Year] Curve 1.Domestic production of crude, Curve 2.Import of crude, Curve 3. Consumption of products Natural gas: presents data on the annual useful production of natural gas in India from 1969 onwards. In 1969, the production was only 0.516 billion m3. It did not change much till 1973. However, subsequently the production increased rapidly. It was 8.913 billion m3 in 1989, 13.5% from 1989 to 1997 & 3.1% from 1997 to 2005. Fig.3. Annual production of natural gas in India [Production rate (109 m3/Year) v/s Year] Water –power: Department of ME, ACE Rajesh N / Ravichandra K M Page 3

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NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES (10ME754) It is one of the indirect ways in which solar energy is being used. Waterpower is developed by allowing water to fall under the force of gravity. It is used almost exclusively for electric power generation. Data on the installed capacity of hydro power in India & the electricity produced from it from 1947 onwards is presented in below fig. 4. (103 GWh Fig.4. installed capacity & electricity generation from water-power in India. Nuclear power: Data on the electricity production from nuclear power is plotted in below fig .5. It is seen that the electricity produced has been generally increasing over the years, as more units are getting commissioned. The higher amount, viz 19242 GWh was produced in 2002. The fall in certain years is because of some units being down for maintenance. Department of ME, ACE Rajesh N / Ravichandra K M Page 4

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