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# Note for Advanced Computer Architecture - ACA by Rajib Swain

• Advanced Computer Architecture - ACA
• Note
• Computer Science Engineering
• B.Tech
• 4 Topics
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Lecture Plan Subject Code : CS2354 Name of the subject : ADVANCED COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE Unit No:1 The simplest and most common way to increase the amount of parallelism is loop-level parallelism. Here is a simple example of a loop, which adds two 1000-element arrays, that is completely parallel: for (i=1;i<=1000; i=i+1) x[i] = x[i] + y[i]; CPI (Cycles per Instruction) for a pipelined processor is the sum of the base CPI and all contributions from stalls: Pipeline CPI = Ideal pipeline CPI + Structural stalls + Data hazard stalls + Control stalls The ideal pipeline CPI is a measure of the maximum performance attainable by the implementation. By reducing each of the terms of the right-hand side, we minimize the overall pipeline CPI and thus increase the IPC (Instructions per Clock). Various types of Dependences in ILP. Data Dependence and Hazards: To exploit instruction-level parallelism, determine which instructions can be executed in parallel. If two instructions are parallel, they can execute simultaneously in a pipeline without causing any stalls. If two instructions are dependent they are not parallel and must be executed in order. There are three different types of dependences: data dependences (also called true data dependences), name dependences, and control dependences. Data Dependences: An instruction j is data dependent on instruction i if either of the following holds: • Instruction i produces a result that may be used by instruction j, or • Instruction j is data dependent on instruction k, and instruction k is data dependent on instruction i. The second condition simply states that one instruction is dependent on another if there exists a chain of dependences of the first type between the two instructions. This dependence chain can be as long as the entire program. 2

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Lecture Plan Subject Code : CS2354 Name of the subject : ADVANCED COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE Unit No:1 For example, consider the following code sequence that increments a vector of values in memory (starting at 0(R1) and with the last element at 8(R2)) by a scalar in register F2: Loop: L.D F0,0(R1) ; F0=array element ADD.D F4,F0,F2 ; add scalar in F2 S.D F4,0(R1) ;store result DADDUI R1,R1,#-8 ;decrement pointer 8 bytes (/e BNE R1,R2,LOOP ; branch R1!=zero The dependence implies that there would be a chain of one or more data hazards between the two instructions. Executing the instructions simultaneously will cause a processor with pipeline interlocks to detect a hazard and stall, thereby reducing or eliminating the overlap. Dependences are a property of programs. Whether a given dependence results in an actual hazard being detected and whether that hazard actually causes a stall are properties of the pipeline organization. This difference is critical to understanding how instruction-level parallelism can be exploited. The presence of the dependence indicates the potential for a hazard, but the actual hazard and the length of any stall is a property of the pipeline. The importance of the data dependences is that a dependence (1) indicates the possibility of a hazard, (2) Determines the order in which results must be calculated, and (3) Sets an upper bound on how much parallelism can possibly be exploited. Name Dependences The name dependence occurs when two instructions use the same register or memory location, called a name, but there is no flow of data between the instructions associated with that name. There are two types of name dependences between an instruction i that precedes instruction j in program order: • An antidependence between instruction i and instruction j occurs when instruction j writes a register or memory location that instruction i reads. The original ordering must be preserved to ensure that i reads the correct value. 3

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Lecture Plan Subject Code : CS2354 Name of the subject : ADVANCED COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE Unit No:1 • An output dependence occurs when instruction i and instruction j write the same register or memory location. The ordering between the instructions must be preserved to ensure that the value finally written corresponds to instruction j. Both anti-dependences and output dependences are name dependences, as opposed to true data dependences, since there is no value being transmitted between the instructions. Since a name dependence is not a true dependence, instructions involved in a name dependence can execute simultaneously or be reordered, if the name (register number or memory location) used in the instructions is changed so the instructions do not conflict. This renaming can be more easily done for register operands, where it is called register renaming. Register renaming can be done either statically by a compiler or dynamically by the hardware. Before describing dependences arising from branches, let’s examine the relationship between dependences and pipeline data hazards. Control Dependences: A control dependence determines the ordering of an instruction, i, with respect to a branch instruction so that the instruction i is executed in correct program order. Every instruction, except for those in the first basic block of the program, is control dependent on some set of branches, and, in general, these control dependences must be preserved to preserve program order. One of the simplest examples of a control dependence is the dependence of the statements in the “then” part of an if statement on the branch. For example, in the code segment: if p1 { S1; }; if p2 { S2; } S1 is control dependent on p1, and S2is control dependent on p2 but not on p1. In general, there are two constraints imposed by control dependences: 1. An instruction that is control dependent on a branch cannot be moved before the branch so that its execution is no longer controlled by the branch. For example, we cannot take an instruction from the then-portion of an if-statement and move it before the ifstatement. 4

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Lecture Plan Subject Code : CS2354 Name of the subject : ADVANCED COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE Unit No:1 2. An instruction that is not control dependent on a branch cannot be moved after the branch so that its execution is controlled by the branch. For example, we cannot take a statement before the if-statement and move it into the then-portion. Control dependence is preserved by two properties in a simple pipeline, First, instructions execute in program order. This ordering ensures that an instruction that occurs before a branch is executed before the branch. Second, the detection of control or branch hazards ensures that an instruction that is control dependent on a branch is not executed until the branch direction is known. Data Hazard and various hazards in ILP. Data Hazards A hazard is created whenever there is a dependence between instructions, and they are close enough that the overlap caused by pipelining, or other reordering of instructions, would change the order of access to the operand involved in the dependence. Because of the dependence, preserve order that the instructions would execute in, if executed sequentially one at a time as determined by the original source program. The goal of both our software and hardware techniques is to exploit parallelism by preserving program order only where it affects the outcome of the program. Detecting and avoiding hazards ensures that necessary program order is preserved. Data hazards may be classified as one of three types, depending on the order of read and write accesses in the instructions. Consider two instructions i and j, with i occurring before j in program order. The possible data hazards are RAW (read after write) — j tries to read a source before i writes it, so j incorrectly gets the old value. This hazard is the most common type and corresponds to a true data dependence. Program order must be preserved to ensure that j receives the value from i. In the simple common five-stage static pipeline a load instruction followed by an integer ALU instruction that directly uses the load result will lead to a RAW hazard. WAW (write after write) — j tries to write an operand before it is written by i. The writes end up being performed in the wrong order, leaving the value written by i rather than the value written by j in the destination. This hazard corresponds to an output dependence. WAW hazards are present only in pipelines that write in more than one pipe stage or allow an instruction to 5