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Note for Computer Programming - CP by Jagan Raja

  • Computer Programming - CP
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1.1 Computer Programming UNIT I INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Computer – Definition: Computer is a fast operating electronic device which automatically accepts and stores input data, processes them and produces results under the direction of a detailed step by step program. Basic operations of a computer: There are five basic operations (i) Input: It is the process of accepting the information, or it is the raw data or information. (ii) Process: It is the transformation process to convert the input in to output. (iii)Output: It is the result, which comes from the transformation process. (iv) Storing: It is the process of saving the data or information or instruction. (v) Controlling: It is the process of directing the manner and sequence in which all the operations are to be performed. Characteristics of Computer: (i)Speed: The computers can process data very fast, at the rate of millions of instructions per second. (ii)Accuray: Computers provide a high degree of accuracy.For example, the computer can accurately give the result of division of any two numbers upto 10 decimal places. JaganRaja.V, AP/CSE Gnanamani College of Technology

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1.2 Computer Programming (iii)Diligence: When used for a longer period of time, the computer does not get tired. It can perform long and complex calculations with the sane speed and accuracy from the start till the end. (iv)Storage Capability: Large volumes of data and information can be stored in the computer and also retrieved whenever required. A limited amount of data can be stored, temporarily in the primary memory. Secondary storage devices like floppy disk and compact disk can store a large amount of data permanently. (v)Versatility: Computer is versatile in nature. It can perform different types of tasks with the same ease. At one moment you can use the computer to prepare letter document and in the next moment you can play music or print a document. 1.2 GENERATION OF COMPUTERS: • The computer generation means step-by-step growth in the technology • Based on the period of development, the features and technological advancement, the computer has been classified into various generations. (i) First Generation (1940-1956): Using Vacuum Tubes: • First Generation computers were vacuum tubes based machines. • These computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory. • Input was based on punched cards and paper tape and output was displayed as printouts. • First Generation computers relied on binary-coded language(0’s and 1’s). • The computation time was in milliseconds. • These computers were large in size and required a large room for installation. • Each machine is fed with different binary codes and hence were difficult to program. • They were used for scientific applications as they were the fastest device of their time. • Example: ENIAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC Advantages: • Vacuum tubes were the only electronic component available at that time. • These computers were the fastest calculating device. • These computers could perform computations in milliseconds JaganRaja.V, AP/CSE Gnanamani College of Technology

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1.3 Computer Programming Disadvantages: • Very big in size • No reliability • Non portable • High power consumption • High heat production. • Difficult to program ii) Second Generation (1956 -1963): Using Transistors: • Second generation computers used transistors. • Since transistor is a small device, the physical size of computers was greatly reduced. • Magnetic cores were used as technology for primary memory • They used magnetic tapes and magnetic disks as secondary storage devices. • Input was through Punched cards and output using printout. • They used the concept of a stored program,where instructionswere stored in the memory of computer. • The language used here is assembly language. • The computation time is microseconds. Example : PDP – 8, IBM 1401, CDC 1604. Advantages: • Small in size • Better reliability • Computational time is Micro seconds • Less heat generated. • Better speed • Better portability. Disadvantages: • Frequent maintenance required • Need Air conditioning JaganRaja.V, AP/CSE Gnanamani College of Technology

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1.4 Computer Programming • High Cost • Manual Assembly of individual components. iii)Third Generation (1964- Early 1971): Using Integrated Circuits: • The third generation computers used the Integrated Circuits(IC)Chips. • In an IC chip, multiple transistors are placed on a silicon chip. Silicon is a type of Semiconductor. • This development made computers smaller in size, reliable and efficient. • The input used is keyboard and the output is monitors. • The keyboard and the monitor were interfaced through the operating system. • The computation time was in nanoseconds. • Example:IBM 370,PDP 11 Advantages: • Small in size • More reliability • Less heat generated • Computational time is Nano seconds • Easily portable • Less power required • Less hardware failure • Low maintenance cost. Disadvantage: • Need Air Conditioning • Highly sophisticated Technology required for the manufacture of IC Chips. iv) Fourth Generation (Early 1971- Till Date) : Using Microprocessors: • They use the Large scale Integration (LSI) and very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology. • Thousands of transistors are integrated on a small silicon chip using LSI technology. JaganRaja.V, AP/CSE Gnanamani College of Technology

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