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Note for Advanced Microprocessor - AM by rakesh chaudhary

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Prepared by :Loknath Regmi January 1 2014 Microprocessor Manual BSC.CSIT

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Chapter: 1 Introduction to Microprocessor Microprocessor is a multipurpose, programmable, clock-driven, register-base, electronic device that reads binary instructions from a storage device called memory, accepts binary data as input and processes data according to those instructions, and provides results as output. A typical programmable machine can be represented with four components: microprocessor, memory, input, and output. The physical components of this system are called hardware. A set of instructions written for the microprocessor to perform a task is called a program, and a group of program is called software. Microprocessor is programmable means it can be instructed to perform given task within its capability. A programmer can select appropriate instructions and ask the microprocessor to perform tasks on a given set of data. These instructions are entered or stored in storage, called memory, which can be read by the microprocessor. A microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer’s central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated chip (IC). Input Microprocessor Output Memory Figure: typical programmable machine 1.1 History of Microprocessor The development of microprocessor is merely dependent on the development of integrated circuit technology (LSI, VLSI, ELSI). Intel invented the term “microprocessor” and in 1971 released the first 4 bit microprocessor as: Intel 4004. The 4004 was the first chip to contain all of components of a CPU on single chip with LSI technology. The microprocessor revolution began with this tiny chip. The features of Intel 4004 are:  It handles four bits at a time  It has specific instructions for reading keyboard and performing decimal and hexadecimal arithmetic.  It uses fixed programs stored in read only memory and data stored in small read/write memory. The next major step in the microprocessor was introduction of the Intel 8008 in 1972. It was the first 8 bit microprocessor designed for terminals. It handles 8 bits data at a time and can access larger amount of R/W memory than Intel 4004.It can handle peripherals like printers and CRTs. The world’s first general purpose microprocessor is Intel 8080. This was an 8 bit machine, with 8 bit data and 16 bit address path to memory. Some other examples of 8 bit microprocessors are Motorola 6500, 2 Loknath Regmi kathford Iint’l College

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Fair-child F-8, Signetics 2650, Toshiba-12, Texas Instrument, etc. After a couple year later Intel 8085 microprocessor were developed as improvements over the 8080. Intel 8086is one of the popular, powerful 16 bit microprocessor developed by Intel, with 1MB memory capacity (20 bit address bus). An extension of 8086 with addressing capability of 16 MB of memory is Intel 80286. While Intel 80386 is Intel’s first 32 bit microprocessor having 4 GB memory capacity. The Intel 80486 introduced the use of much more sophisticated and powerful cache technology and sophisticated instruction pipelining. With the Pentium, Intel introduced the use the superscalar techniques which allow multiple instructions to be executed in parallel. These days there are advancements made in the Pentium Technologies and multi core processors are available. Microcontroller A microcontroller is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications. 1.2 Basic Block Diagram of a Computer The traditional block diagram of a computer Shows that the computer has four components: Memory, input, output & the central Processing unit (CPU), which consists of the Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) and the Control unit (CU). The CPU reads instructions From the memory and performs the tasks Specified. It communicates with input/output devices either to accept or to send data. CPU ALU Input Control Unit Output Memory Fig: traditional block diagram of a computer The CPU is the primary part and was designed with discrete components on various boards. With the arrival of integrated circuit technique, it became possible to build the CPU on a single chip; this came to be known as a microprocessor. The traditional block diagram of computer can be replaced by the block diagram of a computer with a microprocessor as its CPU as shown in figure. Input Microprocessor As CPU Output Memory Fig: block diagram of a computer with microprocessor as CPU The figure alongside resembles a block diagram of a digital computer. The major parts are central processing unit, memory, and input output ports. Each of this part is connected with each other through address bus, data bus, and control bus. 3 Loknath Regmi kathford Iint’l College

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Memory: This consists of RAM and ROM. It may also have magnetic floppy disk, magnetic hard disk or optical disk. It's function are: 1.Store the binary codes for the sequences of instruction and then write a program from that sequence of instruction for the computer. 2.Store the binary coded data with which the computer is going to work. I/O port: The I/P section allows the computer to take in data from the outside world or send data to the outside world. Eg:- keyboard, video display terminals, printers, modems, etc. The physical devices used to interface the computer buses to external systems are called ports. Two ports are available i/p port example keyboard, mouse. O/p port example monitor, printer. Central processing unit “CPU”: The CPU controls the operation of computer. CPU fetches binary coded instruction from memory. Decode the instruction into a series of actions and carries out these actions in a sequence of steps. It also contains the instruction pointer register which hold the address of the next instruction or data item to be fetched from memory. 1.3 Organization ofMicroprocessor Based System with Bus Architecture Microprocessor Input ALU Output Register Array Control System Bus ROM R/WM Memory Fig: Basic structure of microprocessor based system The basic structure of microprocessor based system includes microprocessor, I/O and memory (ROM & R/WM). These components are organized around a common communication path called bus. A microprocessor is composed of following different units.  Microprocessor: It is manufactured by IC integration technique and is capable of performing various computing functions and making decisions to change the sequence of program execution. Microprocessor can be divided into three segments: 1. Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU) 2. Register array 3. Control Unit (CU) ALU: This area of microprocessor performs various functions on data. The ALU unit performs arithmetic operation like addition subtraction and logical operation like And, OR, XOR. 4 Loknath Regmi kathford Iint’l College

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