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Note for Engineering Sociology - ES By Er Ajit Kumar Sahu

  • Engineering Sociology - ES
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Er Ajit Kumar Sahu
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School of Distance Education UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION STUDY MATERIAL Core Course BA SOCIOLOGY V Semester THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES IN SOCIOLOGY Prepared by: Smt. Rakhi.N. Assistant Professor&Head of the Department, Dept. of Sociology, Z.G.College, Kozhikode.(Module I & III) Dr. Sr. Licy.A.D. Assistant Professor, Dept. of Sociology,Carmel College, Mala.(Module II & IV) Scrutinized by: Layout: Dr. N. P Hafiz Mohamad, ‘Manasam’, Harithapuram, Chevayoor, Calicut. Computer Section, SDE © Reserved Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology Page 2

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School of Distance Education Contents Page No. MODULE I DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY 5 MODULE II FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVE 14 MODULE III CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE 28 MODULE IV INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE 37 Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology Page 3

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School of Distance Education MODULE I Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology Page 4

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School of Distance Education DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY Definition A Theory is a set of interrelated concepts used to describe, explain, and predict how society and its parts are related to each other. Theories are sets of inter-related concepts and ideas that have been scientifically tested and combined to clarify, and expand our understanding of people, their behaviors, and their societies. Without theories, science would be a futile exercise. A theory is a set of propositions that provide an explanation by means of a deductive or inductive system. The three major functions of theory are description, explanation and prediction. Nature and Characteristics of Theory A theory is a proposed relationship between two or more concepts. In other words, a theory is explanation for why a phenomenon occurs. Without theories to explain the relationship between concepts, we would not be able to understand cause and effect relationships in social life. The major characteristics of theory are given below.  Time boundedness: Scientific theories always seek to transcend the particular and the time bound. Scientific theories are therefore about the generic, the fundamental, the timeless, and the universal.  Objectivity: Another characteristic of scientific theories is that they are stated more formally than ordinary language. Theory is stated in neutral, objective, and unambiguous terms so that the theory means the same thing to all who examine it.  Reliability and Verifiability: A final characteristic of scientific theories is that they are designed to be systematically tested with replicable methods against the facts of particular empirical settings. Elements of theory: Concepts, Variables, Statements and Formats Theory is a mental activity revolving around the process of developing ideas that explain how and why events occur. Theory is constructed with the following basic elements or building blocks: (1) concepts, (2) variables, (3) statements, and (4) formats. Though there are different types of theory, the basic elements are common to all. Concepts Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology Page 5

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