C PROGRAMMING AND TRICKY QUESTIONS Syllubus Chapter 1: Introduction to computer hardware: Characteristics block diagram, parts of the computer and different kinds of memory, hardware and software, algorithm and flowchart. Chapter 2: Introduction to C Programming language: Types of programming languages, Features of C, Structure of a C program, executing a C program, Characteristics and applications. Cfundamentals: Constants, Variables, identifiers, keywords and Data types . Chapter 3: C input/output functions-unformatted and formatted Input Output functions. Chapter 4: Operators and Expressions in C: Arithmetic, Relational, Logical, assignment, conditional, increment or decrement, bitwise, special operators, associativity and precedence of operators. Chapter 5: Decision making and branching: Different forms of if statements, switch case, continue, goto, break. Decision making and Looping: for, while, do-while, nested loop, jumps in loops. Chapter 6: Arrays: Single and Multi-dimensional array. Chapter 7: Strings: String handling functions and operations. Chapter8: Functions in C: Categories, arrays within functions, nesting of functions, Recursion, Parameter passing methods, Storage classes. Chapter 9: Structures and Unions: Introduction, structure and array, structure and function, nesting of structures, Bitfields and Unions. Chapter 10: Pointers in C: Introduction, operations. Chapter 11: File management in C-types of files, file modes and file functions, command line arguments.
Chapter 1 COMPUTER FUNDAMENTAL Computer: A computer is an electronic device which is used to perform operation on raw data as per instruction given by user. They are 1) It accepts data or instructions through input, 2) It stores data, 3) It can process required data by the user, 4) It gives results as production, and 5) It controls all functions inside the computer types of Computer: The four basic types of computers are as under: 1. Supercomputer 2. Mainframe Computer 3. Minicomputer 4. Microcomputer 1.super computer: the most powerful computers in terms of performance and data processing are the Supercomputers. These are specialized and task specific computers used by large organizations. These computers are used for research and exploration purposes, like NASA uses supercomputers for launching space shuttles, controlling them and for space exploration purpose. Performance of a supercomputer is measured in floating-point operations per second (FLOPS) instead of million instructions per second (MIPS) example: 1.1SahasraT (Cray XC40) SahasraT supercomputer is located at Supercomputer Education and Research Centre (SERC) facility at Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore. SERC is India’s state-of-the-art research facility for high-performance computing in the field of science and engineering 1.2.Aaditya (IBM/Lenovo System) Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology Pune, is the India’s finest meteorological department which uses IBM X system supercomputer for research and development. System is called as Aaditya which is manufactured by IBM. 1.3.Specs: This system has Intel Xeon Haswell E5-2670 2.6 GHZ processors and total RAM storage of
15TB. This supercomputer helps the institute to operate and provide accurate data regarding the Nation’s weather conditions, simulating weather models of the country, predicting rainfall cycles for the monsoon, and air quality forecasting. Most of our country’s weather forecasting is done by this system. Farmers rely on the information provided by this system on rainfall predictions and climate changes. 1.4.IIT Delhi HPC IIT Delhi has one of the fastest supercomputer in their campus. This system is a GPU centric high-performance system and is one of the fewest in the world. NVIDIA experts worked with IIT Delhi team to built this system that is based on GPU Tesla Platform. 1.5.Param Yuva 2 Param Yuva 2 is the supercomputer located at Center for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) in Pune. The System is developed by Intel as OEM and system integrator is NetWeb technologies. Param Yuva 2 is ranked 251st in the world 2.Mainframe computer: Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing. They are larger and have more processing power than some other classes of computers: minicomputers, servers, example:IBM, with z Systems, continues to be a major manufacturer in the mainframe market workstations, and personal computers. 3.Minicomputer: A minicomputer is a type of computer that possesses most of the features and capabilities of a large computer but is smaller in physical size. in recent years, the minicomputer has evolved into the "mid-range server" and is part of a network. IBM's AS/400e is a good example. 4.Microcomputer: The definition of a small personal computer with a microprocessor as a central processor is an example of a microcomputer. A tiny little handheld computer device similar to a SmartPhone that has a central microprocessor is an example of a microcomputer. Computer hardware: The Four Main Types of Hardware are.: 1.Input Device Use to enter information into the computer. Example: Keyboard, mouse,joystick,scanner, voice recognition, touch screen, microphone, light pen, and stylus.
2.Output Device Displays or prints information produced by a computer. 3.Printers and Monitors are examples. a printer produces a hard copy output while a monitor produces a soft copy output. 4.Processer The device that processes data into information. Storage The device that saves data so it can be used again. Disc drives are used to store data on discs. block diagram of computer: 1. Input unit – Input unit is a unit that accepts any input device. The input device is used to input data into the computer system. Function of input unit: 1. It converts inputted data into binary codes. 2. It sends data to main memory of computer . Example:Examples of input devices include keyboards, mouse, scanners, digital cameras and joysticks. 2. Central Processing Unit (CUP) – CPU is called the brain of a computer. An electronic circuitry that carries out the instruction given by a computer program.