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Note for Automata Theory And Computability - ATC by Suraj Keshri

  • Automata Theory And Computability - ATC
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Automata Theory About this Tutorial Automata Theory is a branch of computer science that deals with designing abstract selfpropelled computing devices that follow a predetermined sequence of operations automatically. An automaton with a finite number of states is called a Finite Automaton. This is a brief and concise tutorial that introduces the fundamental concepts of Finite Automata, Regular Languages, and Pushdown Automata before moving onto Turing machines and Decidability. Audience This tutorial has been prepared for students pursuing a degree in any information technology or computer science related field. It attempts to help students grasp the essential concepts involved in automata theory. Prerequisites This tutorial has a good balance between theory and mathematical rigor. The readers are expected to have a basic understanding of discrete mathematical structures. Copyright & Disclaimer  Copyright 2016 by Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd. All the content and graphics published in this e-book are the property of Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd. The user of this e-book is prohibited to reuse, retain, copy, distribute or republish any contents or a part of contents of this e-book in any manner without written consent of the publisher. We strive to update the contents of our website and tutorials as timely and as precisely as possible, however, the contents may contain inaccuracies or errors. Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd. provides no guarantee regarding the accuracy, timeliness or completeness of our website or its contents including this tutorial. If you discover any errors on our website or in this tutorial, please notify us at contact@tutorialspoint.com i

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Automata Theory Table of Contents About this Tutorial ............................................................................................................................................ i Audience ........................................................................................................................................................... i Prerequisites ..................................................................................................................................................... i Copyright & Disclaimer ..................................................................................................................................... i Table of Contents ............................................................................................................................................ ii 1. Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 1 Automata – What is it? .................................................................................................................................... 1 Related Terminologies ..................................................................................................................................... 1 2. Deterministic Finite Automaton ................................................................................................................ 3 3. Non-deterministic Finite Automaton ........................................................................................................ 5 DFA vs NDFA .................................................................................................................................................... 6 Acceptors, Classifiers, and Transducers .......................................................................................................... 7 Acceptability by DFA and NDFA ....................................................................................................................... 7 4. NDFA to DFA Conversion........................................................................................................................... 9 5. DFA Minimization ................................................................................................................................... 11 DFA Minimization using Myphill-Nerode Theorem ....................................................................................... 11 DFA Minimization using Equivalence Theorem ............................................................................................. 13 6. Moore and Mealy Machines ................................................................................................................... 15 Moore Machine to Mealy Machine ............................................................................................................... 17 Mealy Machine to Moore Machine ............................................................................................................... 19 CLASSIFICATION OF GRAMMARS .............................................................................................. 20 7. Introduction to Grammars ...................................................................................................................... 21 Grammar ....................................................................................................................................................... 21 Derivations from a Grammar ......................................................................................................................... 22 8. Language Generated by a Grammar ........................................................................................................ 23 Construction of a Grammar Generating a Language ..................................................................................... 23 9. Chomsky Classification of Grammars ...................................................................................................... 25 REGULAR GRAMMAR ................................................................................................................ 28 10. Regular Expressions ................................................................................................................................ 29 11. Regular Sets ............................................................................................................................................ 31 Identities Related to Regular Expressions ..................................................................................................... 33 12. Arden’s Theorem .................................................................................................................................... 35 ii

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Automata Theory 13. Construction of an FA from an RE ........................................................................................................... 38 Finite Automata with Null Moves (NFA-ε) ..................................................................................................... 40 Removal of Null Moves from Finite Automata .............................................................................................. 40 14. Pumping Lemma for Regular Languages.................................................................................................. 43 15. DFA Complement .................................................................................................................................... 45 CONTEXT-FREE GRAMMARS ..................................................................................................... 47 16. Context-Free Grammar Introduction ....................................................................................................... 48 Generation of Derivation Tree ...................................................................................................................... 48 Left and Right Recursive Grammars .............................................................................................................. 52 17. Ambiguity in Context-Free Grammars ..................................................................................................... 53 18. CFL Closure Property ............................................................................................................................... 55 19. CFG Simplification ................................................................................................................................... 56 20. Chomsky Normal Form ........................................................................................................................... 60 21. Greibach Normal Form ............................................................................................................................ 63 22. Pumping Lemma for CFG ......................................................................................................................... 65 PUSHDOWN AUTOMATA .......................................................................................................... 66 23. Pushdown Automata Introduction .......................................................................................................... 67 Basic Structure of PDA ................................................................................................................................... 67 Terminologies Related to PDA ....................................................................................................................... 68 24. Pushdown Automata Acceptance ........................................................................................................... 70 25. PDA & Context-Free Grammar ................................................................................................................ 72 26. Pushdown Automata and Parsing ........................................................................................................... 74 TURING MACHINE ..................................................................................................................... 76 27. Turing Machine Introduction .................................................................................................................. 77 Definition ....................................................................................................................................................... 77 Time and Space Complexity of a Turing Machine ......................................................................................... 78 28. Accepted Language & Decided Language ................................................................................................ 79 29. Multi-tape Turing Machine ..................................................................................................................... 81 30. Multi-track Turing Machine .................................................................................................................... 82 iii

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