INDEX A Appliances for lifting stones Ashlar masonry B Bearing power of soil Black cotton soil Bonds in brickwork Brick masonry Brick Partitions Built-up sections Concrete sheet piles Cost of formwork Curing of concrete Curved roofs D Damp proofing Dead load Doors and windows Double roofs Drainage of pitched and flat roofs Dressing of stone surfaces Bulking of sand Buttresses E C Earth rammers Effects of dampness External finishes Causes of dampness Cavity walls Cement concrete construction Cement concrete piles Composite floors Composite masonry Concrete mixers F Fire protection in buildings Fire protection systems Floors and floorings Footings Formwork
Foundations for machines Framed structures G Grading of aggregates Grillage foundations Group of piles Guniting I Increasing the bearing power of soil J Joints in stone masonry Junctions K King-post truss L Lightweight concrete Methods of sound insulation Methods of timbering O Objects of foundations Ornamental brickwork P Partitions Piers Pile foundations Pile hammers Pitched roofs Plastering Pointed arch Pointing Pre-cast concrete Proportioning concrete Purlin roofs Q Load bearing piles Quality control of concrete Queen-post truss Loads on foundations Quoins Live load M Method of dropping a weight Methods of damp-proofing R Raft foundations Reinforced brickwork Retaining walls
Roof coverings for pitched roofs Roofs Rooter Round bars Rubble masonry U S Vibrators Sand piles W Scaffolding V Ventilation Ventilators in pitched roofs Wall paper Screw piles Water-cement ratio Shoring Water proofing of flat roofs Single roofs Wedges Stairs Wells Stone masonry Structures in brickwork T Timber floors Timber piles Timber sheet piles Tools used in masonry Tools used in masonry Trussed roofs Types of floorings Uses of piles Window sills Workability Z Zig-zag Bond brick stone
Stones Page 1 CHAPTER-1 STONES 1.0 Introduction: All the building structures are composed of different types of materials. These materials are either called building materials or materials of construction. It is very essential for a builder, may be an architecture or engineer or contractor, to become conversant thoroughly with these building materials. The knowledge of different types of material, their properties and uses for different purposes provides and important tool in the hands of the builders in achieving economy in material cost. The material cost in a building ranges 30 to 50 percent cost of total cost construction. In addition to material economy, the correct use of material results in better structural strength, functional efficiency and esthetic appearance 1.1 Classification of Rocks: Building stones are obtained from rocks occurring in nature and classified in three ways. 1. Geological classification 2. Physical classification 3. Chemical classification I. Geological Classification: According to this classification, the rocks are of the following types.