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Note for Control System - CS by NEERATI SIDDHIK

  • Control System - CS
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Neerati Siddhik
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Introduction to Control Systems & Classification     Introduction  At  present  days,  due  to  the  increasing  complexity  and  automation  of  systems  there  is  a  great  importance  has  been  placed  on  the  accuracy,high  productivity  systems  etc.,  Control  systems  are  applicable  to  achieve  these  concepts.  Let’s  stare  our  discussion  with  the  definition  of System   What is a System?  A  System  is  an  arrangement  of various components in an interconnected  manner to act together to perform a task.  What is a Control System?  A  Control  System  is  also a system of arrangement of various components  in an interconnected manner to act together to perform a desired task.  Classification of control systems  1. Natural control system and Man-made control systems  Natural control system:   It  is  a  control  system  that  is  created  by  nature  i.e,  solar  system, digestive system of an any animal etc.  Man-made control system:   It  is  a  control  system  that  is  created  by  humans  i.e,  automobile, power plants etc.  ​ 2. Automatic control system and Combinational control system  Automatic control system:   It  is  a  control  system  that  is  a  that  is  made  by  basic theories  from  mathematics  and  engineering.  This  system  mainly  has  sensors, actuators and responders.   N.SIDDHIK M.Tech Assistant Professor Department of EEE 

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Combinational  control  system:  It  is  a  control  system  that  is  a  combination  of  natural  and  man-made  control  system  i.e,  driving  a  car  etc.  ​ 3. Time-Variant and Time-Invariant control system  Time-Variant control system:   It  is  a  control  system  where  any  one  or  more  parameters  of  the control system vary with a time i.e, driving a vehicle.  Time-Invariant control system:   It  is  a  control system where none of its parameters vary with  time  i.e,  control  system  made  up  of  inductors,  capacitors  and  resistors etc.  4. Linear control system and Non-linear control system  Linear  control  system:  It  is  a  control  system  that  satisfies  properties of homogeneity and additive.  Homogeneous property: Additive property:   f (x + y ) = f (x) + f (y)    f (ax) = aF (x)   Non-Linear  control  system:  It  is  a  control  system  that  does  not  satisfy the principle of homogeneity and additive.  5. Continuous-Time control and Discrete-Time control system  Continuous-Time  control  system:  It  is  a  control  system  where  performance  of  all  its parameters are function of time, i.e, armature type  speed control of motor.  Discrete-Time  control  system:  It  is  a  control  system  where  performance  of  all  its  parameters  are  function  of  discrete-time,  i.e,  Microprocessor type speed control of motor.  6. Deterministic control system and Stochastic control system  Deterministic control system:   It  is  a  control  system  where  its  output  is  predictable  or  repetitive  for certain input signals or disturbance signals.  Stochastic control system:   N.SIDDHIK M.Tech Assistant Professor Department of EEE 

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It  is  a  control  system  where  its  output  is  unpredictable  or  non-repetitive for certain input signals or disturbance signals.  7.  Lumped  parameter  control  and  Distributed  parameter  control  system  Lumped parameter control system:   It  is  a  control  system where its mathematical model is represented  by ordinary differential equations.  Distributed parameter control system:   It  is  a  control  system where its mathematical model is represented  by  an  electrical  network  that  is a combination of resistors, inductors and  capacitors.  8.  Single  Input-Single  Output  (SISO)  and  Multi  Input-Multi  Output   Single Input-Single Output (SISO) control system:   It is a control system that has only one input and one output.  Multi Input-Multi Output (MIMO) control system:    It  is  a  control  system  that  has  more  than  one  input  and more than  one output.  9. Open Loop control system and Closed Loop control system  Open loop Control System:  Open  loop  Control  System  is  a  system  in  which  output  has  no  effect  on  input.  The  input  signal  controls  the  output  through  control  action.  This  Open  loop  Control  System  is  also  referred  as  Non-feedback  Control  system.    Where r(t) = Reference input  u(t) = Actuating signal  N.SIDDHIK M.Tech Assistant Professor Department of EEE 

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c(t) = Controlled Output  Examples  of  Open  loop  Control  System  are  Washing  machine,  bread  toaster, Sprinkler, Electric hand dryer etc.,  Closed loop Control System:  Closed  loop  Control  System  is  a  system  in  which  output  has  direct  effect  on  Control  Action  through  feedback. The input signal controls the output  through  control  action.  This  Closed  loop  Control  System  is  also  referred  as feedback Control system.    Examples  of  Closed  loop  Control  System  are  Temperature  control  system, water level controller, motor speed controller etc.,  Examples of Control System:  Temperature Control System  Open Loop system:    The  electric  furnace  shown  in  the  figure  is  open  loop  system.  The  output  in  the  system  is  the  desired  temperature.  The  temperature  of  the  system  is  raised  by  heat  generated  by  the  heating  element.  The  output  temperature  depends  on  the  during  which  supply  to  remains ON.The ON  and  OFF  of  the  supply  is  generated  by  the  time  setting  the  relay.  The  temperature  is  measured  by  a  sensor,  which  gives  an  Analogue  voltage  corresponding  to  the  temperature  of  the  furnace.  The  analogue  signal  is  converted to digital signal by A-to-D converter.   N.SIDDHIK M.Tech Assistant Professor Department of EEE 

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