PECI5405 Estimation, Costing & Professional Practice 7th Sem Civil Topics Covered Books Under Review Module – I Quality estimation: Principles of estimation, methods and units, Estimation of materials in buildings, Culverts and bridges. Module -II Principles of general and detailed specification for various types building works. Analysis of rates, description, Prime cost, Schedule rates, Analysis of rates for various types of works. Module – III Network techniques, Introduction to CPM/ PERT methods and their use in project planning construction schedules for jobs, materials equipments, labour and finance. 1. Estimating and Costing in Civil Engineering Theory & Practice, B.N. Dutta, UBS Publishers 2. PERT and CPM, L.S. Sreenath, East West Press 3.Civil engineering contracts and estimates by B.S. Patil, University Press.
Module – I ESTIMATE AND ESTIMATION WHAT IS AN ESTIMATE …… Before taking up any work for its execution, the owner or builder should have a thorough knowledge about the volume of work that can be completed within the limits of his funds or the probable cost that may be required to complete the proposed work. It is therefore necessary to prepare the probable cost or estimate for the proposed work from its plan and specification. Otherwise, it may so happen that the work has to be stopped before its completion due to the shortage of funds or of materials. Besides the above , an estimate for any public construction work is required to be prepared and submitted beforehand so that sanction of necessary funds may be obtained from the authority concerned . Thus an estimate for any construction work may be defined as the process of calculating the quantities and costs of the various items required in connection with the work . It is prepared by calculating the quantities, from the dimensions on the drawings for the various items required to complete the project and multiplied by unit cost of the item concerned. To prepare an estimate , drawing consisting of the plan , the elevation and the section through important points, along with a detailed specification giving specific description of all workmanship , properties and proportion of materials , are required. PURPOSE OF ESTIMATING:- To ascertain the necessary amount of money required by the owner to complete the proposed work . For public construction work, estimates are required in order to obtain administrative approval , allotment of funds and technical sanction. To ascertain quantities of materials required in order to programme their timely procurement. To procure controlled materials, if any, like cement , steel, etc. quantities of such materials are worked out from the estimate of the work and attached with the application for verification. Under Review
To calculate the number of different categories of workers that is to be employed to complete the work within the scheduled time of completion. To assess the requirements of tool , plants and equipment required to complete the work according to the programmed. To fix up the completion period from the volume of works involved in the estimate. To draw up a construction schedule and programmed and also to arrange the funds required according to the programming. To justify the investment from benefit cost ratio.(for ideal investment ,this ratio should be more than one) To invite tenders and prepare bills for payment. An estimate for an existing property is required for valuation TYPES OF ESTIMATE ROUGH COST ESTIMATE PLINTH AREAESTIMATE CUBICAL CONTENT ESTIMATE A QUANTITY ESTMATE APPROXIMATE QUANTITY METHOD DETAILED OR ITEM RATE ESTIMATE REVISED ESTIMATE SUPPLEMENTARY ESTIMATE REPAIR AND MAINTENANCEESTIMATE A COMPLETE ESTIMATE ROUGH COST ESTIMATE IT is prepared to decide the financial policy matter.it is prepared on basis of practical knowledge and cost of similar works. The competent sanctioning authority accords “Administrative approval Under Review
These estimates are also referred to as rom estimate and are useful for go /no kind decision making which essential refers to whether the project should or should not be pursued Some of the methods they can be useful for such estimates are investment per annual capacity turnover and capital ratio . PLINTH AREA ESTIMATE IT Is prepared on the basis of plinth area of the building multiplied by plinth area rate prevalent in the region. Plinth area rates are fixed from the cost of similar buildings constructed in the locality having similar finishing’s and amenities The cost of construction is determined by multiplying plinth area with plinth area rate. The area is obtained by multiplying length and breadth (outer dimensions of building). In fixing the plinth area rate, careful observation and necessary enquiries are made in respect of quality and quantity aspect of materials and labor, type of foundation, height of building, roof, wood work, fixtures, number of stores etc. CUBICAL CONTENT ESTIMATE This estimate is worked out on the basis of the cubical contents of proposed building to be constructed and then applying to it the rate per cubic meter. This is more accurate than plinth area estimate. The cubic content rates are deduced from the cost of similar buildings constructed in the same locality This method is generally used for multi-storied buildings. It is more accurate that the other two methods viz., plinth area method and unit base method. The cost of a structure is calculated approximately as the total cubical contents (Volume of buildings) multiplied by Local Cubic Rate. The volume of building is obtained by Length x breadth x depth or height. The length and breadth are measured out to out of walls excluding the plinth off set Under Review