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Note for Introduction to Physical Metallurgy and Engineering Materials - IPM by Jitendra Pal

  • Introduction to Physical Metallurgy and Engineering Materials - IPM
  • Note
  • Biju Patnaik University of Technology Rourkela Odisha - BPUT
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • B.Tech
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Note: Material science is the basic knowledge end of materials knowledge spectrum, where as,  material engineering is applied knowledge end and there is no demarcation line between the two  subjects of interest    Evolution of Engineering Materials Why Material Science & Engineering is important to technologists?  Examples: • Mechanical engineers search for high temp material so that gas turbines, jet engines etc can operate more efficiently and wear resistance materials to manufacture bearing materials • Electrical engineers search for materials by which electrical devices or machines can be operated at a faster rate with minimum power losses • Aerospace & automobile engineers search for materials having high strength-toweight ratio • Electronic engineers search for material that are useful in the fabrication & miniaturization of electronic devices • Chemical engineers search for highly corrosion-resistant materials Note: All these demands may be fulfilled when the internal structure and engineering properties are known to an engineer or technologist  

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Classification  It is the systematic arrangement or division of materials into groups on the basis of some common characteristic 1. According to General Properties 2. According to Nature of Materials 3. According to Applications  1. According to General Properties (a). Metals (e.g. iron, aluminium, copper, zinc, lead, etc) Iron as the base metal, and range from plain carbon (> 98 % Fe) to (i). Ferrous: high alloy steel (< 50 % alloying elements), e.g. cast iron, wrought iron, steel, alloys like high-speed steel, spring steel, etc (ii). Non-Ferrous: Rest of the all other metals and their alloys, e.g. copper, aluminium, zinc lead, alloys like brass, bronze, duralumin, etc (b). Non-Metals (e.g. leather, rubber, asbestos, plastics, etc) 2. According to Nature of Materials (a). Metals: e.g. Iron & Steel, Alloys &Superalloys, Intermetallic Compounds, etc (b). Ceramics: e.g. Structural Ceramics (high-temperature load bearing), Refractories (corrosion-resistant, insulating), Whitewares (porcelains), Glass, Electrical Ceramics (capacitors, insulators, transducers), Chemically Bonded Ceramics (cement & concrete) (c).Polymers: e.g. Plastics, Liquid Crystals, Adhesives (d). Electronic Materials: e.g. Silicon, Germanium, Photonic materials (solid-state lasers, LEDs) (e). Composites: e.g. Particulate composites (small particles embedded in a different material), Laminate composites (golf club shafts, tennis rackets), Fiber reinforced composites (fiberglass) (f). Biomaterials: e.g. Man-made proteins (artificial bacterium), Biosensors, etc (g). Advanced / Smart Materials: e.g. materials in computers (VCRs, CD Players, etc), fibreoptic systems, spacecrafts, aircrafts, rockets, shape-memory alloys, piezoelectric ceramics, magnetostrictive materials, optical fibres, microelectromechanical (MEMs) devices, electrorheological / magnetorheological fluids, Nanomaterials, etc 3. According to Applications (a). Electrical Materials: e.g. conductors, insulators, dielectrics, etc

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(b). Electronic Materials: e.g. conductors, semi-conductors, etc (c). Magnetic Materials: e.g. ferromagnetic, paramagnetic & diamagnetic materials, etc (d). Optical Materials: e.g. glass, quartz, etc (e). Bio Materials: e.g. man-made proteins, artificial bacterium Engineering Materials Metals Ferrous Cast Iron Carbon Steels Alloy Steels Stainless Steels Ceramic s Alumina Diamond Magnesia Silicon Carbide Zirconia Polymers Thermoplastic ABS Acrylic Nylon Polyethylene Polystyrene Vinyl Composites Carbon Fiber Ceramic Matrix Glass Fiber Metal Matrix Electronic Materials Silicon Germanium Photonic Materials Solid-State Lasers LEDs BioMaterials Man-Made Proteins Artificial Bacterium Biosensors Thermosetting Elastomers Epoxy Phenolic Polyester Shape-Memory Alloys Piezoelectric Ceramics Magnetostrictive Materials Optical Fibres Electrorheological Fluids Nanomaterials NonFerrous Aluminium Brass Bronze Copper Lead Magnesium Nickel Tin Zinc Titanium Advanced / Smart Materials Butyl Fluorocarbon Neoprene Rubber Silicone

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Difference between Metals & Non-Metals Property Metals Non-Metals Structure Crystalline Amorphic State Generally solids at room temp. Gaseous & solid at ordinary temp. Luster Metallic luster No metallic luster (except iodine & graphite) Conductivity Good conductors electricity Malleability Malleable Not malleable Ductility Ductile Not ductile Hardness Generally hard Hardness varies Electrolysis Form anions Form anioins Excitation of valence electron by e.m.f. Easy Difficult Density High Low of heat & Bad conductors 1. Material Properties  • Physical: e.g. appearance, shape, weight, boiling point, melting point, freezing point, density, glass transition temperature, permeability • Mechanical: e.g. strength (tensile, compressive, shear, torsion, bending), elasticity, plasticity, ductility, malleability, rigidity, toughness, hardness, brittleness, impact, fatigue, creep, strain hardening, Bauschinger effect, strain rate effect, vibration resistance, wear • Thermal: e.g. thermal conductivity, expansion coefficient, resistivity, thermal shock resistance, thermal diffusivity

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