BIJU PATNAIK UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, ODISHA Lecture Notes On DBMS Prepared by, Dr. Subhendu Kumar Rath, BPUT, Odisha.
Prepared by: Dr. Subhendu Kumar Rath DBMS: Basic Concepts 1. Introduction 2. Disadvantages of file oriented approach 3. Database 4. Why Database 5. Database Management System(DBMS) 6. Function of DBMS 7. Advantages of DBMS and disadvantage of DBMS 8. Database Basics 9. Three level architecture of DBMS 10. Database users 11. Database language 12. Database structure Introduction: In computerized information system data is the basic resource of the organization. So, proper organization and management for data is required fro organization to run smoothly. Database management system deals the knowledge of how data stored and managed on a computerized information system. In any organization, it requires accurate and reliable data for better decision making, ensuring privacy of data and controlling data efficiently. The examples include deposit and/or withdrawal from a bank,hotel,airline or railway reservation, purchase items from supermarkets in all cases, a database is accessed. What is data: Data is the known facts or figures that have implicit meaning. It can also be defined as it is the representation of facts ,concepts or instruction in a formal manner, which is suitable for understanding and processing. Data can be represented in alphabets(A-Z, a-z),in digits(0-9) and using special characters(+,-.#,$, etc) e.g: 25, “ajit” etc. Information: Information is the processed data on which decisions and actions are based. Information can be defined as the organized and classified data to provide meaningful values. Eg: “The age of Ravi is 25” File: File is a collection of related data stored in secondary memory.
Prepared by: Dr. Subhendu Kumar Rath, BPUT. File Oriented approach: The traditional file oriented approach to information processing has for each application a separate master file and its own set of personal file. In file oriented approach the program dependent on the files and files become dependent on the files and files become dependents upon the programs Disadvantages of file oriented approach: 1) Data redundancy and inconsistency: The same information may be written in several files. This redundancy leads to higher storage and access cost. It may lead data inconsistency that is the various copies of the same data may longer agree for example a changed customer address may be reflected in single file but not else where in the system. 2) Difficulty in accessing data : The conventional file processing system do not allow data to retrieved in a convenient and efficient manner according to user choice. 3) Data isolation : Because data are scattered in various file and files may be in different formats with new application programs to retrieve the appropriate data is difficult. 4) Integrity Problems: Developers enforce data validation in the system by adding appropriate code in the various application program. How ever when new constraints are added, it is difficult to change the programs to enforce them. 5) Atomicity: It is difficult to ensure atomicity in a file processing system when transaction failure occurs due to power failure, networking problems etc. (atomicity: either all operations of the transaction are reflected properly in the database or non are) 6) Concurrent access: In the file processing system it is not possible to access a same file for transaction at same time 7) Security problems: There is no security provided in file processing system to secure the data from unauthorized user access. Database: A database is organized collection of related data of an organization stored in formatted way which is shared by multiple users. The main feature of data in a database are:
Prepared by: Dr. Subhendu Kumar Rath 1. It must be well organized 2. it is related 3. It is accessible in a logical order without any difficulty 4. It is stored only once for example: consider the roll no, name, address of a student stored in a student file. It is collection of related data with an implicit meaning. Data in the database may be persistent, integrated and shared. Persistent: If data is removed from database due to some explicit request from user to remove. Integrated: A database can be a collection of data from different files and when any redundancy among those files are removed from database is said to be integrated data. Sharing Data: The data stored in the database can be shared by multiple users simultaneously with out affecting the correctness of data. Why Database: In order to overcome the limitation of a file system, a new approach was required. Hence a database approach emerged. A database is a persistent collection of logically related data. The initial attempts were to provide a centralized collection of data. A database has a self describing nature. It contains not only the data sharing and integration of data of an organization in a single database. A small database can be handled manually but for a large database and having multiple users it is difficult to maintain it, In that case a computerized database is useful. The advantages of database system over traditional, paper based methods of record keeping are: compactness: No need for large amount of paper files speed: The machine can retrieve and modify the data more faster way then human being Less drudgery: Much of the maintenance of files by hand is eliminated Accuracy: Accurate,up-to-date information is fetched as per requirement of the user at any time. Database Management System (DBMS): A database management system consists of collection of related data and refers to a set of programs for defining, creation, maintenance and manipulation of a database. Function of DBMS: