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Note for Cyber Security - cs By Abhinay Shrivastav

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Abhinay Shrivastav
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RUC-501(Cyber Security) Cyber security refers to the protection of Internet connected systems, including hardware, software and data from cyber attacks. Cyber security focuses on protecting computers, networks, programs and data from unintended or unauthorized access, change or destruction. The general security objectives comprise the following: (i) (ii) (iii) Availability Integrity, which may include authenticity and non-repudiation Confidentiality Need of Cyber Security We are living in a digital era. Whether it is booking a hotel room, or booking a seat in restaurant, or even in a cab, we are using Internet and constantly generating data. This data is generally saved on cloud which are Huge data servers or Data Center that you can access online. So with tons of data to exploit, hackers are having their golden time. This vulnerability raises the need of such security which can strengthen the systems in a better way. Information System An information system is a set of interrelated elements or component that collects (input), manipulate (process) and disseminate (output) data and information and provide feedback mechanism to meet an objective. Information systems and technologies have become a vital component for successful business organization. Examples:- University admission Process, Bank Systems. The major components of Information Systems 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Users Hardware Software Database Set of Methods Types of Information System 1. Transaction Processing System

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2. 3. 4. 5. Management Information System Workflow System Decision Support System Expert System 1. Transaction Processing System A transaction processing system is an information system for business transactions involving the collection, modification and retrieval of all transaction data. E.g. airline reservation system, electronic transfer of funds, bank account processing. Transaction-Transactions are the basic business operations such as customer orders, purchase orders, receipts, time cards, invoices, and payroll checks in an organization. Types of TPS i. Batch Processing System Batch processing is where the information is collected and stored as a batch but not processed immediately. Batch processing is useful for enterprise that need to process large amounts of data using limited resources. Example: Payment by cheque, Credit card transactions, etc. ii. Online transaction processing(OLTP): OLTP is a system whereby each transaction is processed immediately, without delay of accumulating transactions into batches. The request raised by either customer or any other person are instantly processed by the system. In OLTP, any failure to online systems becomes a costly overhead as all the date requested are retrieved and stored online. E.g. ATM’s, Railway Reservation. 2. Management Information System MIS is used in those organizations where information is required in the form of reports, presentation by management to take decisions. An MIS gathers data from multiple online systems, analyzes the information, and reports data to aid in management decision-making. TPS is only concerned with processing a business transaction. In MIS, the requirement is much higher as different areas like accounts, inventory, sales, purchase, marketing etc. needs to be tightly integrated to provide collective information to management. 3. Workflow Management System

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A workflow management system (WFMS) is a software system for the set-up, performance and monitoring of a defined sequence of tasks, arranged as a workflow. WFMS helps to define, administer and coordinate different business processes. These are used to manage and control the interrelated activities required to perform a business goal. Workflow system operates by performing a set if tasks in a predefined manner. 4. Decision Support Systems A decision support system (DSS) is an information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities. A DSS analyzes business data and presents it in such a way that the user can make business decisions more easily. Three defining characteristics of DSSs are: 1. An easy-to-use interactive interface 2. models that enable sensitivity analysis, what if analysis, goal seeking, and risk analysis 3. Data from multiple sources - internal and external sources plus data added by the decision maker who may have insights relevant to the decision situation What-if analysis refers to changing assumptions or data in the model to see the impacts of the changes on the outcome. The main difference between management information system and decision support system is that MIS supports structured decision making while the DSS provides support for unstructured or semi-structured decisions. MIS provides such as daily, weekly, and quarterly report of the employee working hours. Whereas DSS supports unstructured and semi-structured decisions such as whether to make-or-buy-or-outsource products, or what new products to develop and introduce into existing markets. Example- If Management needs to decide which product company should be or which discontinued, then DSS is used. MIS provides information to support lower and middle layer managerial decisions or operations. DSS provides information to support specific situations. MIS uses a large volume of data as the input and gives out a summarized report. DSS uses a low volume of data and the output is decision analysis. Expert System Expert system is an information system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert. Expert systems are designed to solve complex problems by reasoning through bodies of

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knowledge, represented mainly as if–then rules rather than through conventional procedural code. These systems use Artificial Intelligence to solve the problem that requires human expertise. An Expert system is divided into 2 subsystems:1. The Inference Engine- It applies the rules to the known facts to deduce new facts. 2. The Knowledge Base- Represents Facts and Rules. Eg. If-then ExampleMYCIN is an expert system which provides the expert guidance to individual for medical diagnosis. MYCIN uses artificial intelligence to identify bacteria causing infections, and to recommend antibiotics. Development Cycle of Information System The Systems development life cycle (SDLC) is the traditional systems development method used by most organizations today. The SDLC is a structured framework that consists of sequential processes by which information systems are developed. SDLC include following steps1. System investigation 2. Systems analysis 3. Systems design 4. Development 5. Testing and Integration 6. Implementation 7. Operation and maintenance 1. System Investigation It is the first stage of information system development cycle. The purpose of this phase is to find out the scope of the problem and determine solutions. Resources, time, cost, benefits are considered in this step. The preliminary investigation includes the following tasks: a. List problems, opportunities and directives. b. Negotiate preliminary scope. c. Assess project worth. d. Plan the project. e. Present the project and plan. 1.1 Feasibility study The next task in the systems investigation stage is the feasibility study. The feasibility study determines the probability of success of the proposed systems development project and assesses the project’s technical, economic, and behavioral feasibility. The feasibility study is critically important to the systems development process because, done properly, the study can prevent organizations

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