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Note for Cellular Mobile Communication - CMC by Ajay Kothuri

  • Cellular Mobile Communication - CMC
  • Note
  • Electronics and Communication Engineering
  • B.Tech
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Poor Service Performance: In the past, a total of 33 channels were all allocated to three mobile telephone systems: Mobile Telephone Service (MTS), Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS) MJ systems, and Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS) MK systems. MTS operates around 40 MHz and MJ operates at 150 MHs; both provide 11 channels; IMTS MK operates at 450 MHz and provides 12 channels. These 33 channels must cover an area 50 mi in diameter. In 1976, New York City had 6 channels of( MJ serving 320 customers, with another 2400 customers on a waiting list. New York City also had 6 channels of MK serving 225 customers, with another 1300 customers on a waiting list. The large number of subscribers created a high blocking probability during busy hours. Although service performance was undesirable, the demand was still great. A high-capacity system for mobile telephones was needed. Inefficient Frequency Spectrum Utilization: In a conventional mobile telephone system, the frequency utilization measurement Mo, is defined as the maximum number of customers that could be served by one channel at the busy hour. Mo = Number of customers/channel Mo = 53 for MJ 37 for MK The offered load can then be obtained by A = Average calling time (minutes) x total customers / 60 min (Erlangs) Assume average calling time = 1.76 min. A1 = 1.76 * 53 * 6 / 60 = 9.33 Erlangs (MJ system) A2 = 1.76 * 37 * 6 / 60 = 6.51 Erlangs (MK system) If the number of channels is 6 and the offered loads are A1 = 9.33 and A2 = 6.51, then from the Erlang B model the blocking probabilities, B1 = 50 percent (MJ system) and B2 =30 percent (MK system), respectively. It is likely that half the initiating calls will be blocked in the MJ system, a very high blocking probability. As far as frequency spectrum 2

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utilization is concerned, the conventional system does not utilize the spectrum efficiently since each channel can only serve one customer at a time in a whole area. This is overcomed by the new cellular system. BASIC CELLULAR SYSTEMS A basic analog cellular system consists of three subsystems: a mobile unit, a cell site, and a mobile telephone switching office (MTSO), as Fig. 1.1 shows, with connections to link the three subsystems. 1. Mobile units. A mobile telephone unit contains a control unit, a transceiver, and an antenna system. 2. Cell site. The cell site provides interface between the MTSO and the mobile units. It has a control unit, radio cabinets, antennas, a power plant, and data terminals. 3. MTSO. The switching office, the central coordinating element for all cell sites, con-tains the cellular processor and cellular switch. It interfaces with telephone company zone offices, controls call processing, provides operation and maintenance, and han-dles billing activities. 4. Connections. The radio and high-speed data links connect the three subsystems. Each mobile unit can only use one channel at a time for its communication link. But the channel is not fixed; it can be any one in the entire band assigned by the serving area, with each site having multichannel capabilities that can connect simultaneously to many mobile units. The MTSO is the heart of the analog cellular mobile system. Its processor provides central coordination and cellular administration. The cellular switch, which can be either analog or digital, switches calls to connect mobile subscribers to other mobile subscribers and to the nationwide telephone network. It uses voice trunks similar to telephone company interoffice voice trunks. It also contains data links providing supervision links between the processor and the switch and between the cell sites and the processor. The radio link carries the voice and signaling between the mobile unit and the cell site. The high-speed data links 3

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cannot be transmitted over the standard telephone trunks and therefore must use either microwave links or T-carriers (wire lines). Microwave radio links or T-carriers carry both voice and data between cell site and the MTSO. First, second, third, and fourth generation cellular wireless systems (1G, 2G, 3G and 4G networks) The "G" in wireless networks refers to the "generation" of the underlying wireless network technology. Technically generations are defined as follows: 4

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1G networks (NMT, C-Nets, AMPS, TACS) are considered to be the first analog cellular systems, which started early 1980s. There were radio telephone systems even before that. 1G networks were conceived and designed purely for voice calls with almost no consideration of data services 2G networks (GSM, CDMAOne, D-AMPS) are the first digital cellular systems launched early 1990s, offering improved sound quality, better security and higher total capacity. GSM supports circuit-switched data (CSD), allowing users to place dial-up data calls digitally, so that the network's switching station receives actual ones and zeroes rather than the screech of an analog modem. 2G networks with theoretical data rates up to about 144kbit/s. 3G networks (UMTS FDD and TDD, CDMA2000 1x EVDO, CDMA2000 3x, TDSCDMA, Arib WCDMA, EDGE, IMT-2000 DECT) are newer cellular networks that have data rates of 384kbit/s and more. The UN's International Telecommunications Union IMT-2000 standard requires stationary speeds of 2Mbps and mobile speeds of 384kbps for a 3G. 4G technology refers to the fourth generation of mobile phone communication standards. LTE and WiMAX are marketed as parts of this generation, even though they fall short of the actual standard. The ITI has taken ownership of 4G, bundling into a specification known as IMTAdvanced. The document calls for 4G technologies to deliver downlink speeds of 1Gbps when stationary and 100Mbps when mobile UNIQUENESS OF MOBILE RADIO ENVIRONMENT Description of Mobile Radio Transmission Medium The Propagation Attenuation. In general, the propagation path loss increases not only with frequency but also with distance. If the antenna height at the cell site is 30 to 100 m and at the mobile unit about 3 m above the ground, and the distance between the cell site and the mobile unit is usually 2 km or more, then the incident angles of both the direct wave and the reflected wave are very small, as Fig. 2.4 shows. The incident angle of the direct wave is θ1, and the incident angle of the reflected wave is θ2. θ 1 is also called the elevation angle. The 5

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