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Note for Foundation of Computer Science - FCS By Shubham Nautiyal

  • Foundation of Computer Science - FCS
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Shubham Nautiyal
Shubham Nautiyal
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CONTENT TABLE 1. Fundamentals of Computers ………. 1 - 16 2. Introduction to Programming language ………. 17 - 32 3. C Language Fundamental ………. 33 - 61 4. C Functions ………. 62 - 73 5. Arrays and Strings ………. 74 - 82 6. Pointers ………. 83 - 91 7. Structures and Unions ………. 92 - 100 8. File Handling ………. 101 - 106 9. Additional Features in C ………. 107 - 113 10. Practice Set (Algo, Flow Chart, Program) ………. 114 - 126

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FUNDAMENTAL OF COMPUTERS Content Developed By | Santosh Kumar 1

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Introduction to Computer: 1. Charles Babbage is the "Father" of the computer. 2. The word “computer” comes from the word “compute” which means to calculate. So a computer is normally considered to be a calculating device that can perform arithmetic operations. 3. Computer cannot do anything without a Program. 4. Computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user and processes these data under the control of set of instructions (called program) and gives the result (output) and saves output for the future use. It can process both numerical and nonnon numerical (arithmetic and logical) calculations. The basic components of a modern digital computer are: Input Device, Output Device, and Central Processor. A Typical modern computer uses LSI Chips. Four Functions about computer are: accepts data processes data produces output stores results Input Processing Output Storage  Full form of Computer C O M P U T E R : Common : Operating : Machine : Particularly : Used for : Trade : Education : Research Generations of Computer:  First Generation (1945-1955) 1. In this generation Vacuum tubes were used to design the computer 2. Too bulky in size 3. Not portable 4. Limited commercial used 5. Large amount of heat generated 6. Air conditioning required 7. High Electricity Consumption 8. Very costly 9. Perform computations in milliseconds 10. Prone to Frequent hardware failures , so constant maintenance required 11. Unreliable Ex: UNIVAC I (UNIVersal Automatic Computer). Content Developed By | Santosh Kumar 2

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 Second Generation (1955 – 1964) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. In this generation Transistor were used to design the computer Smaller in size as compared to first generation computer Better portability Wider commercial used but costly Less heat generated Air conditioning required Less prone to hardware failures Frequent maintenance required Perform computations in microseconds (able to reduce computational time from millisecond to microseconds) 10. More reliable  Third Generation (1964 – 1975) 1. In this generation IC(integrated circuit) were used to design the computer 2. Smaller in size as compared to previous generation computers 3. Easily portable 4. Widely used for various commercial applications all over the world 5. Less heat generated as compared to previous generation computers 6. maintenance cost is low because hardware failures are rare 7. Perform computations in nanoseconds (able to reduce computational time from microseconds to nanoseconds) 8. More reliable as compared to previous generation computers 9. Less power required then previous generation computers 10. Air conditioning required in many cases  Fourth Generation (1975 Onwards) 1. In this generation microprocessors were used to design the computer 2. Uses LSI(large scale integration) and VLSI (very large scale integration) technique in microprocessor 3. Small in size so easily portable 4. Minimal labour and cost involved at assembly stage 5. Very reliable 6. Heat generated is negligible 7. No Air conditioning required in most cases 8. Much faster than previous generation computers 9. Hardware failure is negligible so minimal maintenance required 10. Cheapest among all generation Content Developed By | Santosh Kumar 3

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