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Note for Mechatronics - Mech By Namachivayam S

  • Mechatronics - Mech
  • Note
  • Mohamed Sathak AJ College of Engineering - MSAJCE
  • Electronics and Communication Engineering
  • 10 Topics
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Namachivayam S
Namachivayam S
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Prepared by Namachivayam S Asst Prof Mechatronics can also be termed as replacement of mechanics with electronics or enhance mechanics with electronics. For example, in modern automobiles, mechanical fuel injection systems are now replaced with electronic fuel injection systems. This replacement made the automobiles more efficient and less pollutant. With the help of microelectronics and sensor technology, Mechatronics systems are providing high levels of precision and reliability. It is now possible to move (in x – y plane) the work table of a modern production machine tool in a step of 0.0001 mm. By employment of reprogrammable microcontrollers/microcomputers, it is now easy to add new functions and capabilities to a product or a system. Today’s domestic washing machines are “intelligent” and four-wheel passenger automobiles are equipped with safety installations such as air-bags, parking (proximity) sensors, antitheft electronic keys etc. Basic Elements of Mechatronics system Department of ECE Page 2

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Prepared by Namachivayam S Asst Prof The basic elements of Mechatronics system are 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Input signal Controller Mechanical system Sensor Microcontroller Output Importance of Mechatronics in automation Today’s customers are demanding more variety and higher levels of flexibility in the products. Due to these demands and competition in the market, manufacturers are thriving to launch new/modified products to survive. It is reducing the product life as well as lead-time to manufacture a product. It is therefore essential to automate the manufacturing and assembly operations of a product. There are various activities involved in the product manufacturing process. These are shown in figure 1.1.3. These activities can be classified into two groups viz. design and manufacturing activities Department of ECE Page 3

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Prepared by Namachivayam S Asst Prof Mechatronics concurrently employs the disciplines of mechanical, electrical, control and computer engineering at the stage of design itself. Mechanical discipline is employed in terms of various machines and mechanisms, where as electrical engineering as various electric prime movers viz. AC/DC, servo motors and other systems is used. Control engineering helps in the development of various electronics based control systems to enhance or replace the mechanics of the mechanical systems. Computers are widely used to write various softwares to control the control systems; product design and development activities; materials and manufacturing resource planning, record keeping, market survey, and other sales related activities. Using computer aided design (CAD) / computer aided analysis (CAE) tools, three dimensional models of products can easily be developed. These models can then be analyzed and can be simulated to study their performances using numerical tools. These numerical tools are being continuously updated or enriched with the real-life performances of the similar kind of products. These exercises provide an approximate idea about performance of the product/system to the design team at the early stage of the product development. Based on the simulation studies, the designs can be modified to achieve better performances. During the conventional design manufacturing process, the design assessment is generally carried out after the production of first lot of the products. This consumes a lot of time, which leads to longer (in months/years) product development lead-time. Use Department of ECE Page 4

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Prepared by Namachivayam S Asst Prof of CAD–CAE tools saves significant time in comparison with that required in the conventional sequential design process. CAD-CAE generated final designs are then sent to the production and process planning section. Mechatronics based systems such as computer aided manufacturing (CAM): automatic process planning, automatic part programming, manufacturing resource planning, etc. uses the design data provided by the design team. Based these inputs, various activities will then be planned to achieve the manufacturing targets in terms of quality and quantity with in a stipulated time frame. Mechatronics based automated systems such as automatic inspection and quality assurance, automatic packaging, record making, and automatic dispatch help to expedite the entire manufacturing operation. These systems certainly ensure a supply better quality, well packed and reliable products in the market. Automation in the machine tools has reduced the human intervention in the machining operation and improved the process efficiency and product quality. Therefore it is important to study the principles of mechatronics and to learn how to apply them in the automation of a manufacturing system. Control System When a number of elements are combined together to form a system to produce desired output then the system is referred as control system. As this system controls the output, it is so referred. Each element connected to the system has its own effect on the output. Definition of Control System A control system is a system of devices or set of devices, that manages commands, directs or regulates the behavior of other device(s) or system(s) to achieve desire results. In other words the definition of control system can be rewritten as a control system is a system, which controls other system. As the human civilization is being modernized day by day the demand of automation is increasing accordingly. Automation highly requires control of devices. In recent years, control systems plays main role in the development and advancement of modern technology and civilization. Practically every aspects of our day-to-day life is affected less or more by some control system. A bathroom toilet tank, a refrigerator, an air conditioner, a geezer, an automatic iron, an automobile all are control system. These systems are also used in industrial process for more output. We find control system in quality control of products, weapons system, transportation systems, power system, space technology, robotics and many more. The principles of control theory is applicable to engineering and non engineering field both. Feature of Control System The main feature of control system is, there should be a clear mathematical relation between input and output of the system. When the relation between input and output of the system can be Department of ECE Page 5

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