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Note for Database Management System - DBMS by Suraj Kumar

  • Database Management System - DBMS
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Table of Contents About the Tutorial ..................................................................................................................................... i Audience .................................................................................................................................................... i Prerequisites .............................................................................................................................................. i Copyright & Disclaimer .............................................................................................................................. i Table of Contents ...................................................................................................................................... ii 1. OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................ 1 Characteristics .......................................................................................................................................... 1 Users ......................................................................................................................................................... 2 2. ARCHITECTURE ..................................................................................................................... 4 3-tier Architecture .................................................................................................................................... 4 3. DATA MODELS ...................................................................................................................... 6 Entity-Relationship Model ........................................................................................................................ 6 Relational Model ...................................................................................................................................... 7 4. DATA SCHEMAS .................................................................................................................... 9 Database Schema...................................................................................................................................... 9 Database Instance................................................................................................................................... 10 5. DATA INDEPENDENCE ......................................................................................................... 11 Data Independence ................................................................................................................................. 11 Logical Data Independence ..................................................................................................................... 11 Physical Data Independence ................................................................................................................... 12 6. ER MODEL – BASIC CONCEPTS ............................................................................................ 13 Entity ...................................................................................................................................................... 13 Attributes ............................................................................................................................................... 13 ii

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Relationship ............................................................................................................................................ 14 7. ER DIAGRAM REPRESENTATION .......................................................................................... 17 Entity ...................................................................................................................................................... 17 Attributes ............................................................................................................................................... 17 Relationship ............................................................................................................................................ 19 8. GENERALIZATION & SPECIALIZATION .................................................................................. 22 Generalization ........................................................................................................................................ 22 Specialization .......................................................................................................................................... 22 Inheritance ............................................................................................................................................. 23 9. CODD’S 12 RULES................................................................................................................ 25 Rule 1: Information Rule ......................................................................................................................... 25 Rule 2: Guaranteed Access Rule .............................................................................................................. 25 Rule 3: Systematic Treatment of NULL Values ......................................................................................... 25 Rule 4: Active Online Catalog .................................................................................................................. 25 Rule 5: Comprehensive Data Sub-Language Rule .................................................................................... 25 Rule 6: View Updating Rule ..................................................................................................................... 26 Rule 7: High-Level Insert, Update, and Delete Rule ................................................................................. 26 Rule 8: Physical Data Independence........................................................................................................ 26 Rule 9: Logical Data Independence ......................................................................................................... 26 Rule 10: Integrity Independence ............................................................................................................. 26 Rule 11: Distribution Independence ........................................................................................................ 26 Rule 12: Non-Subversion Rule ................................................................................................................. 26 10. RELATIONAL DATA MODEL .................................................................................................. 27 Concepts ................................................................................................................................................. 27 Constraints.............................................................................................................................................. 27 iii

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11. RELATIONAL ALGEBRA......................................................................................................... 29 Relational Algebra .................................................................................................................................. 29 Relational Calculus .................................................................................................................................. 31 12. ER MODEL TO RELATIONAL MODEL .................................................................................... 33 Mapping Entity ....................................................................................................................................... 33 Mapping Relationship ............................................................................................................................. 34 Mapping Weak Entity Sets ...................................................................................................................... 34 Mapping Hierarchical Entities ................................................................................................................. 35 13. SQL OVERVIEW.................................................................................................................... 37 Data Definition Language ........................................................................................................................ 37 Data Manipulation Language .................................................................................................................. 38 14. NORMALIZATION ................................................................................................................ 41 Functional Dependency .......................................................................................................................... 41 Armstrong's Axioms ................................................................................................................................ 41 Trivial Functional Dependency ................................................................................................................ 41 Normalization ......................................................................................................................................... 42 First Normal Form ................................................................................................................................... 42 Second Normal Form .............................................................................................................................. 43 Third Normal Form.................................................................................................................................. 44 Boyce-Codd Normal Form ....................................................................................................................... 45 15. JOINS................................................................................................................................... 46 Theta (θ) Join .......................................................................................................................................... 46 Equijoin ................................................................................................................................................... 47 Natural Join (⋈) ...................................................................................................................................... 47 Outer Joins .............................................................................................................................................. 49 iv

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16. STORAGE SYSTEM ............................................................................................................... 52 Memory Hierarchy .................................................................................................................................. 52 Magnetic Disks ........................................................................................................................................ 53 RAID ........................................................................................................................................................ 53 17. FILE STRUCTURE.................................................................................................................. 56 File Organization ..................................................................................................................................... 56 File Operations........................................................................................................................................ 57 18. INDEXING ............................................................................................................................ 59 Dense Index ............................................................................................................................................ 59 Sparse Index ........................................................................................................................................... 60 Multilevel Index ...................................................................................................................................... 60 B+ Tree .................................................................................................................................................... 61 19. HASHING ............................................................................................................................. 63 Hash Organization................................................................................................................................... 63 Static Hashing ......................................................................................................................................... 63 Bucket Overflow ..................................................................................................................................... 64 Dynamic Hashing .................................................................................................................................... 65 Organization ........................................................................................................................................... 66 Operation ............................................................................................................................................... 66 20. TRANSACTION ..................................................................................................................... 68 ACID Properties....................................................................................................................................... 68 Serializability .......................................................................................................................................... 69 Equivalence Schedules ............................................................................................................................ 69 States of Transactions ............................................................................................................................. 71 21. CONCURRENCY CONTROL ................................................................................................... 72 v

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