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Note for Microprocessor - MP By Srikrishna Thota

  • Microprocessor - MP
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  • Electronics and Communication Engineering
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Introduction to Microprocessors • The microprocessor is one of the most important components of a digital computer. • It acts as the brain of the computer system. • As technology has progressed, microprocessors have become faster, smaller and capable of doing more work per clock cycle. • Sometimes, microprocessor is written as µP. Definition: Microprocessor is the controlling unit or CPU of a micro-computer, fabricated on a very small chip capable of performing ALU operations and communicating with the external devices connected to it. A Computer • Accepts the data from the user. • Stores the data and the set of instructions supplied by the user in memory. • Processes the data according to the instructions in the processing unit. • Communicates the result to the user or stores it for further reference. A computer has the following units: 1. 2. 3. 4. Input Unit Output Unit Memory Unit Central Processing Unit

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INPUT UNIT • The input unit consists of the devices which accept the data and instructions from the user and communicates it to the CPU. • The various input devices are: keyboard, mouse, joystick, trackball etc. OUTPUT UNIT • It provides the result of the various operations performed by the CPU to the user. • The various output devices are: printers, monitors, loudspeakers etc. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) • The CPU is the heart and nerve centre of the computer. • It fetches the instruction and data from the peripheral devices and performs all the arithmetic operations, takes logical decision and control the operation of all other units. Various sub-blocks of the central processing unit are: • Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) • Timing & Control Unit • Registers ARITHMETIC AND LOGIC UNIT (ALU)

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• This unit performs all the logical and arithmetic operations. • Various arithmetic operations are: addition, subtraction, increment and decrement etc. • Various logical operations are: AND, OR, NOT, XOR, etc. TIMING AND CONTROL UNIT • This unit controls the entire operations being performed by the system. • It controls the operations of ALU, input/output devices and memory unit. • This unit interprets the instructions and generates various timing and control signals. REGISTERS • A register is a very small amount of very fast memory that is built into the CPU in order to store the current data and instructions which are being executed by the CPU.  MEMORY UNIT • • • • It stores the program statement and the data i.e. the information supplied from the input unit. It also stores the final output. This is connected to the CPU by means of a bidirectional bus. The CPU processes the information as taken from the memory and performs the operations in the ALU section. • The results are either transferred to the output unit or stored in the memory for later use by the CPU.

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A MICRO-COMPUTER • As the name implies, microcomputers are small computers. • The block diagram of the microcomputer is similar to the computer except that the central processing unit of the microcomputer is contained in a single IC called the microprocessor. • A microprocessor is a LSI (Large Scale Integration) IC that does almost all the functions of the CPU. • It is also defined as a CPU contained in a single chip. The basic function of the microprocessor is: • to fetch the instructions stored in the main memory • identify the operations and the devices involved in it • and accordingly generate control signals to determine when a given action is to take place. We can say that a CPU is known as computer with a microprocessor as its Microcomputer. Some Definitions MICROPROCESSOR: • The central processing unit built on a single IC is called Microprocessor. • A microprocessor (sometimes abbreviated as µP) is a digital electronic component with miniaturized transistors on a single semiconductor integrated circuit (IC). • One or more microprocessors typically serve as a central processing unit (CPU) in a computer system or handheld device

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