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Note for Foundation of Computer Science - FCS By Jagan Reddy

  • Foundation of Computer Science - FCS
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UNIT: I Overview of Computers and Programming, Data types, Operators and Expressions High Speed • • • • Computer is a very fast device. It is capable of performing calculation of very large amount of data. The computer has units of speed in microsecond, nanosecond, and even the picosecond. It can perform millions of calculations in a few seconds as compared to man who will spend many months for doing the same task. Accuracy • • • In addition to being very fast, computers are very accurate. The calculations are 100% error free. Computers perform all jobs with 100% accuracy provided that correct input has been given. Storage Capability • • • • Memory is a very important characteristic of computers. A computer has much more storage capacity than human beings. It can store large amount of data. It can store any type of data such as images, videos, text, audio and many others. Diligence • • • Unlike human beings, a computer is free from monotony, tiredness and lack of concentration. It can work continuously without any error and boredom. It can do repeated work with same speed and accuracy. Versatility • • • • A computer is a very versatile machine. A computer is very flexible in performing the jobs to be done. This machine can be used to solve the problems related to various fields. At one instance, it may be solving a complex scientific problem and the very next moment it may be playing a card game. Reliability • • • A computer is a reliable machine. Modern electronic components have long lives. Computers are designed to make maintenance easy. Automation • Computer is an automatic machine. Therisa T , CSE Department Page 2

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UNIT: I Overview of Computers and Programming, Data types, Operators and Expressions • • Automation means ability to perform the given task automatically. Once a program is given to computer i.e., stored in computer memory, the program and instruction can control the program execution without human interaction. Reduction in Paper Work • • The use of computers for data processing in an organization leads to reduction in paper work and results in speeding up a process. As data in electronic files can be retrieved as and when required, the problem of maintenance of large number of paper files gets reduced. Reduction in Cost • Though the initial investment for installing a computer is high but it substantially reduces the cost of each of its transaction. Disadvantages Following list demonstrates the disadvantages of computers in today's arena No I.Q • • • A computer is a machine that has no intelligence to perform any task. Each instruction has to be given to computer. A computer cannot take any decision on its own. Dependency • It functions as per a user’s instruction, so it is fully dependent on human being Environment • The operating environment of computer should be dust free and suitable. No Feeling • • Computers have no feelings or emotions. It cannot make judgement based on feeling, taste, experience, and knowledge unlike a human being. Computer – Applications Following list demonstrates various applications of computers in today's arena. Banking Today banking is almost totally dependent on computer. Therisa T , CSE Department Page 3

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UNIT: I Overview of Computers and Programming, Data types, Operators and Expressions Banks provide following facilities: • • Banks provide online accounting facility, which includes current balances, deposits, overdrafts, interest charges, shares, and trustee records. ATM machines are making it even easier for customers to deal with banks. Insurance Insurance companies are keeping all records up-to-date with the help of computers. The insurance companies, finance houses and stock broking firms are widely using computers for their concerns. Insurance companies are maintaining a database of all clients with information showing • • • • • • • procedure to continue with policies starting date of the policies next due installment of a policy maturity date interests due survival benefits bonus Education The computer has provided a lot of facilities in the education system. • • • • • The computer provides a tool in the education system known as CBE (Computer Based Education). CBE involves control, delivery, and evaluation of learning. The computer education is rapidly increasing the graph of number of computer students. There are number of methods in which educational institutions can use computer to educate the students. It is used to prepare a database about performance of a student and analysis is carried out on this basis. Marketing In marketing, uses of computer are following: • • Advertising - With computers, advertising professionals create art and graphics, write and revise copy, and print and disseminate ads with the goal of selling more products. At Home Shopping - Home shopping has been made possible through use of computerised catalogues that provide access to product information and permit direct entry of orders to be filled by the customers. Health Care Therisa T , CSE Department Page 4

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UNIT: I Overview of Computers and Programming, Data types, Operators and Expressions Computers have become important part in hospitals, labs, and dispensaries. The computers are being used in hospitals to keep the record of patients and medicines. It is also used in scanning and diagnosing different diseases. ECG, EEG, Ultrasounds and CT Scans etc., are also done by computerised machines. Some major fields of health care in which computers are used are: • • • • • Diagnostic System - Computers are used to collect data and identify cause of illness. Lab-diagnostic System - All tests can be done and reports are prepared by computer. Patient Monitoring System - These are used to check patient's signs for abnormality such as in Cardiac Arrest, ECG etc. Pharma Information System - Computer checks Drug-Labels, Expiry dates, harmful drug’s side effects etc. Surgery : Nowadays, computers are also used in performing surgery. Engineering Design Computers are widely used in Engineering purpose. One of major areas is CAD (Computer aided design). That provides creation and modification of images. Some fields are: • • • Structural Engineering - Requires stress and strain analysis for design of Ships, Buildings, Budgets, Airplanes etc. Industrial Engineering - Computers deal with design, implementation and improvement of integrated systems of people, materials and equipments. Architectural Engineering - Computers help in planning towns, designing buildings, determining a range of buildings on a site using both 2D and 3D drawings. Military Computers are largely used in defence. Modern tanks, missiles, weapons etc. Military also employs computerised control systems. Some military areas where a computer has been used are: • • • • Missile Control Military Communication Military Operation and Planning Smart Weapons Communication Communication means to convey a message, an idea, a picture or speech that is received and understood clearly and correctly by the person for whom it is meant for. Some main areas in this category are: • E-mail Therisa T , CSE Department Page 5

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