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Note for Operating Systems - OS By Mohammad Akbal

  • Operating Systems - OS
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OPERATING SYSTEM INDEX LESSON 1: INTRODUCTION TO OPERATING SYSTEM LESSON 2: FILE SYSTEM – I LESSON 3: FILE SYSTEM – II LESSON 4: CPU SCHEDULING LESSON 5: MEMORY MANAGEMENT – I LESSON 6: MEMORY MANAGEMENT – II LESSON 7: DISK SCHEDULING LESSON 8: PROCESS MANAGEMENT LESSON 9: DEADLOCKS LESSON 10: CASE STUDY OF UNIX LESSON 11: CASE STUDY OF MS-DOS LESSON 12: CASE STUDY OF MS-WINDOWS NT Lesson No. 1 Intro. to Operating System 1

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Lesson Number: 1 Writer: Dr. Rakesh Kumar Introduction to Operating System Vetter: Prof. Dharminder Kr. 1.0 OBJECTIVE The objective of this lesson is to make the students familiar with the basics of operating system. After studying this lesson they will be familiar with: 1. What is an operating system? 2. Important functions performed by an operating system. 3. Different types of operating systems. 1. 1 INTRODUCTION Operating system (OS) is a program or set of programs, which acts as an interface between a user of the computer & the computer hardware. The main purpose of an OS is to provide an environment in which we can execute programs. The main goals of the OS are (i) To make the computer system convenient to use, (ii) To make the use of computer hardware in efficient way. Operating System is system software, which may be viewed as collection of software consisting of procedures for operating the computer & providing an environment for execution of programs. It’s an interface between user & computer. So an OS makes everything in the computer to work together smoothly & efficiently. Figure 1: The relationship between application & system software Lesson No. 1 Intro. to Operating System 2

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Basically, an OS has three main responsibilities: (a) Perform basic tasks such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files & directories on the disk, & controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives & printers (b) Ensure that different programs & users running at the same time do not interfere with each other; & (c) Provide a software platform on top of which other programs can run. The OS is also responsible for security, ensuring that unauthorized users do not access the system. Figure 1 illustrates the relationship between application software & system software. The first two responsibilities address the need for managing the computer hardware & the application programs that use the hardware. The third responsibility focuses on providing an interface between application software & hardware so that application software can be efficiently developed. Since the OS is already responsible for managing the hardware, it should provide a programming interface for application developers. As a user, we normally interact with the OS through a set of commands. The commands are accepted & executed by a part of the OS called the command processor or command line interpreter. Figure 2: The interface of various devices to an operating system In order to understand operating systems we must understand the computer hardware & the development of OS from beginning. Hardware means the Lesson No. 1 Intro. to Operating System 3

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physical machine & its electronic components including memory chips, input/output devices, storage devices & the central processing unit. Software are the programs written for these computer systems. Main memory is where the data & instructions are stored to be processed. Input/Output devices are the peripherals attached to the system, such as keyboard, printers, disk drives, CD drives, magnetic tape drives, modem, monitor, etc. The central processing unit is the brain of the computer system; it has circuitry to control the interpretation & execution of instructions. It controls the operation of entire computer system. All of the storage references, data manipulations & I/O operations are performed by the CPU. The entire computer systems can be divided into four parts or components (1) The hardware (2) The OS (3) The application programs & system programs (4) The users. The hardware provides the basic computing power. The system programs the way in which these resources are used to solve the computing problems of the users. There may be many different users trying to solve different problems. The OS controls & coordinates the use of the hardware among the various users & the application programs. User Compiler Database User User Assembler User Text Editor Application programs Operating System Computer Hardware Figure 3. Basic components of a computer system We can view an OS as a resource allocator. A computer system has many resources, which are to be required to solve a computing problem. These Lesson No. 1 Intro. to Operating System 4

Lecture Notes