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Note for Introduction to Information Technology - IIT by Mohammad Akbal

  • Introduction to Information Technology - IIT
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Lesson Number: 1 Writer: Vishal Verma Information Concept and Processing System Vetter: 1.1 OBJECTIVE The objective of this lesson is to make the students familiar with the basics of Information and Data Processing System. After studying this lesson they will be familiar with: 1. What is Information & Data? 2. What are the processing systems for data and information? 3. What is information processing language? 1.2 INTRODUCTION An information processor or information processing system, as its name suggests, is a system (be it electrical, mechanical or biological) which takes information (a sequence of enumerated states) in one form and processes (transforms) it into another form, e.g. to statistics, by an algorithmic process. An information processing system is made up of four basic parts, or subsystems: • input • processor • storage • output Lesson No. 1 Information Concept and Processing System 1

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Anything in this world by which we can observe the change in one form of information into other, can be treated as an information system. Any object which in its one form is providing us the information in one form and after completion of some operation on same object the resultant object give us information in another form then the object in itself can be treated as an information system. Information science focuses on understanding problems from the perspective of the stakeholders involved and then applying information and other technologies as needed. In other words, it tackles systemic problems first rather than individual pieces of technology within that system. In this respect, information science can be seen as a response to technological determinism, the belief that technology "develops by its own laws, that it realizes its own potential, limited only by the material resources available, and must therefore be regarded as an autonomous system controlling and ultimately permeating all other subsystems of society." Within information science, attention has been given in recent years to human–computer interaction, groupware, the semantic web, value sensitive design, iterative design processes and to the ways people generate, use and find information. Information science should not be confused with information theory, the study of a particular mathematical concept of information 1.3 EVOLUTION OF INFORAMTION PROCESSING Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. As such, it is a process which describes everything which happens (changes) in the universe, from the falling of a rock (a change in position) to the printing of a text file from a digital computer system. In the latter case, an information processor is changing the form of presentation of that text file. Information processing may more specifically be defined in terms used by Claude E. Shannon as the conversion of latent information into manifest information. Latent and manifest information is defined through the terms of equivocation (remaining uncertainty, what value the sender has actually chosen), dissipation (uncertainty of the sender what the receiver has actually received) and transformation (saved effort of questioning - equivocation minus dissipation). Lesson No. 1 Information Concept and Processing System 2

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Within the field of cognitive psychology, information processing is an approach to the goal of understanding human thinking. It arose in the 1940s and 1950s. The essence of the approach is to see cognition as being essentially computational in nature, with mind being the software and the brain being the hardware. The information processing approach in psychology is closely allied to cognitive in psychology and functionalism in philosophy although the terms are not quite synonymous. Information processing may be sequential or parallel, either of which may be centralized or decentralized (distributed). The parallel distributed processing approach of the mid-1980s became popular under the name connectionism. In the early 1950s Friedrich Hayek was ahead of his time when he posited the idea of spontaneous order in the brain arising out of decentralized networks of simple units (neurons). However, Hayek is rarely cited in the literature of connectionism. In the 1970s, Abraham Moles and Frieder Nake were among the first to establish and analyze links between information processing and aesthetics. While discussing the topic of information processing, the discussion about the information science and theory also play its important role since it helps us to understand technically about the processing strategies of system. Information science is an interdisciplinary science primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information. Practitioners within the field study the application and usage of knowledge in organizations, along with the interaction between people, organizations and any existing information systems, with the aim of creating, replacing, improving or understanding information systems. Information science is often (mistakenly) considered a branch of computer science. However, it is actually a broad, interdisciplinary field, incorporating not only aspects of computer science, but often diverse fields such as archival science, cognitive science, commerce, communications, law, library science, musicology, management, mathematics, philosophy, public policy, and the social sciences. The information processing theory approach to the study of cognitive development evolved out of the American experimental tradition in psychology. Lesson No. 1 Information Concept and Processing System 3

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Information processing theorists proposed that like the computer, the human mind is a system that processes information through the application of logical rules and strategies. Like the computer, the mind has a limited capacity for the amount and nature of the information it can process. Finally, just as the computer can be made into a better information processor by changes in its hardware (e.g., circuit boards and microchips) and its software (programming), so do children become more sophisticated thinkers through changes in their brains and sensory systems (hardware) and in the rules and strategies (software) that they learn. Beliefs of the information-processing approach 1. When the individual perceives, encodes, represents, and stores information from the environment in his mind or retrieves that information, he or she is thinking. Thinking also includes responding to any constraints or limitations on memory processes. 2. The proper focus of study is the role of change mechanism in development. Four critical mechanisms work together to bring about change in children’s cognitive skills: encoding, strategy construction, automatization, and generalization. To solve problems effectively, children must encode critical information about a problem and then use this encoded information and relevant prior knowledge to construct a strategy to deal with the problem 3. Development is driven by self-modification. Like Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, the information-processing approach holds that children play an active role in their own development. Through selfmodification, the child uses knowledge and strategies she has acquired from earlier problem solution to modify her responses to a new situation or problem. In this way, she builds newer and more sophisticated responses from prior knowledge Lesson No. 1 Information Concept and Processing System 4

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