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Note for Analog And Digital Electronics - ADE By Mohammad Akbal

  • Analog And Digital Electronics - ADE
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  • Master of Computer Applications
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M.Sc. (Computer Science) Master of Computer Application MS-03 / MCA-203 Course Curriculum for Digital Electronics 125001

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Sr. No. Lesson Name Page No. 1. Introduction 3 2. Binary Algebra 13 3. Logic Gates 34 4. Digital Integrated Circuits 60 5. Flip-Flops and Sequential Logic Circuits 80 6. Applications of Logic Circuits-I 118 7. Applications of Logic Circuits-II 140

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: 1 Author : Dr. Devendra Mohan Vetter : Dr. Sib Krishna Ghoshal Introduction All of us are familiar with the impact of digital calculators, watches, modern communication systems and computers in every day life. All persons working in various fields related to electronics must understand the performance of Digital Electronic Circuits. All sizes of computers, as we know, perform complicated task with fantastic speed and accuracy. At stores, the cash register read out digital display digital clock and watches flash the time in all city shops and restaurants. Most automobiles use microprocessors to control engine functions. Aircraft’s defense sectors, factory machines and modern diagnostic in medical science are controlled by digital circuits. Therefore, one asks obvious questions like: • What is a digital circuit? • How digital circuits work? • Why use digital circuits? • How one makes a digital signal? How does one test a digital signal? And so on, a long list of queries. This revolution took place with the advent of integrated circuits (IC) which is an offspring of semiconductor technology. The inexpensive fabrication of ICs has made the subject Digital Electronics easy to study. One small IC can perform the task of thousands of Transistors Diodes and Resistors. Many ICs are used to construct Digital Circuits. This is an exciting and rapidly growing field, which uses several principles for the working of computers, Communication systems, Digital machinery’s etc. The basic idea is to let the beginners understand the operation of the Digital system and many other systems based on the principles of Digital Techniques. Any (3)

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device working under Digital Techniques are called Digital Systems and the Electronic Network used to make them operational are called Digital Circuits. The subject as a whole is often referred as Modern Digital Electronics. Electronic circuits use two kinds of signals. They are Analog Signals (continuous supply of voltages and currents) and Digital Signals (discrete voltages and current). For example, Circuits (electronic network) using Analog signals are known as Linear or Analog Circuits. Similarly, the electronic network of an electronic calculator or digital watch that uses Digital signals are called Digital Circuits. An analog device, then, is one that has a signal, which varies continuously in time with the input, whereas, a digital device operates with a digital signal that varies discontinuously. As a result, the Digital Electronics is the world of ZEROS’ (OFF/ LOW/DOWN/FALSE) and ‘ONES’ (ON/HIGH/UP/TRUE). Figure1.1 shows the behavior of Analog and Digital signal and the possibility of conversion from Analog to Digital. Figure 1.2 represents a symbol of some devices using Analog and Digital world. This example is set to explain how real life problem like movement of a pivot on a water tank that indicates the level of water can be translated to analog/digital form. Figure (4)

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