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Note for Embedded System - ES by yasir lone

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typical hardware architecture of an embedded system used custom hardware with embedded software. The software environment implements application developments and compilation process and hardware units‟ implement user logic or behavior synthesis. The Hardware side of design most likely consists of interconnection components such as processors, memories and communication units (buses, output/input device I/O interfaces, sensor, RTOS devices etc.) [Fig. 1.1]. Embedded systems have used some specific constraints such as real time design metrics are a measurement of an application features such as Cost, Size, Power and High Performances. Reactive and real time design metrics required to implement the computing results which used in real time environments without any delay. Currently embedded system designer are being designed on a silicon chip and also design for critical applications like killer application (smart phone), smart card, video game, mobile internet, handheld embedded system, GBPS device, gigabyte per second LAN system. An Embedded system has basic needs for high performance is given as below. Cost reduction for real-time design implementation Short time span for application execution and Complexity reductive architectures Runtime-aware architectures and Deploying time-analyzable Effective resource management schemes and runtime aware environments Effective simulation tools that allow us to make design space explorations and are used for comparisons between different hardware/software designs. Embedded design requires a temperature- aware OS solution for real-time and high-performance systems. Effective compiler technology Applicable for high-performance computing (HPC) and realtime embedded computing (EC) world. 2

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Fig. 1.1 Application requirements based embedded system design 1.2 Embedded components Embedded system is used High-performance processors, memory architectures and various communication design and these infrastructures are very pervasive in our real-time computing world. Embedded system components are used to implement the design interface, exchanging run-time information, monitoring according to our application demanding. An Embedded system is designed for efficient and effective resources at a low cost. An effective network processor requirement in embedded systems is to reduce the complexity of underlying computing, communications, sensing and control mechanism. An Embedded system has basic elements are given below. 1.2.1 Processor and co-processor units/system 1.2.2 Memory units/system 1.2.3 Communication interface (I/O interfaces, buses, output/input devices, RTOS etc.) and peripheral units/system 3

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1.2.1 Processor and co-processor system Embedded processor technology used to easily meet the architecture of the computation engine and implements a system‟s desired functionality [Fig. 1.2]. Each processor system has specific features and it‟s designed to implement a specific task. The processor design is manifesting with different design metrics such as cost, power, size and real-time developments. Commercially two types of microprocessor RISC and CISC are used in various high-performance embedded computing. The processor unit contains pipeline unit which is controlled by DMA circuits. There are two kinds of pipeline commonly used in processor arithmetic pipeline and instruction pipeline. An instruction pipeline operates on a stream of instructions by overlapping fetch, decode, and execute phases of the instruction cycles. Currently, long instruction memory plays a dominant role in the pipeline mechanism [Fig. 1.3]. Various Pipeline mechanisms are used by various processor developer companies such as ARM, Intel and Motorola etc. according to their performance. Fig. 1.2 Basic Processor design 4

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Fig. 1.3 Basic VLIW units for embedded systems Instruction set architecture plays a dominant role in memory storage due to code optimization. Thumb instruction set and NEON technology are effectively used in the ARM processor design mechanism. Floating point operation can be implemented by co-processor unit which is used floating-point pipelining mechanism. The VLIW [Fig. 1.3] architecture is distinct from RISC and CISC architecture and also effective in the current market due to its support multiple execution units and effective compiler technology. VLIW has the ability to execute multiple operations simultaneously. Currently, Cortex-A, Cortex-m series processors design technology is effectively used in real time embedded system. Embedded system designer used various mechanisms for processors developments have different design metrics and analyzed various processor architectures which is used in our real-time environments or System on chip such as GPP, DSP, ASIP and ASICs. The General Purpose Processor is designed to implement digital devices but this kind of processor system does not know the program specifications or application features[Fig 1.4]. This processor contains large computation devices such as 5

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