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Note for Optical Communication and Network - OCN By rajendra shekhawat

  • Optical Communication and Network - OCN
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A Course Material on OPTICAL COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING By Mr. C.JAGADEESHWARAN ASSISTANT PROFESSOR DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING SASURIE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING VIJAYAMANGALAM – 638 056

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QUALITY CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the e-course material Subject Code : EC2402 Scubject : Optical Communication and Networking Class : IV Year ECE being prepared by me and it meets the knowledge requirement of the university curriculum. Signature of the Author Name: Designation: C.Jagadeeshwaran Assistant Professor/ECE This is to certify that the course material being prepared by Mr. C.Jagadeeshwaran is of adequate quality. He has referred more than five books amont them minimum one is from aborad author. Signature of HD Name: Dr.K.Pandiarajan

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CONTENTS UNIT -1 INTRODUCTION Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 UNIT -2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 1 - 35 2 Ray theory transmission 3 1.2.1 Total internal reflection 3 1.2.2 Acceptance angle 5 1.2.3 Numerical aperture 6 1.2.4 Skew rays 8 Electromagnetic mode theory for optical propagation 11 1.3.1 Electromagnetic waves 11 1.3.2 Modes in a planar guide 13 1.3.3 Phase and group velocity 15 Cylindrical fiber 17 1.4.1 Modes 17 1.4.2 Mode coupling 20 1.4.3 Step index fibers 21 1.4.4 Graded index fibers 22 Single-mode fiber 25 1.5.1 Cutoff wavelength 25 1.5.2 Mode-field diameter and spot size 26 1.5.3 Effective refractive index 27 1.5.4 Group delay and mode delay factor 28 1.5.5 The Gaussian approximation 30 1.5.6 Equivalent step index method 32 TRANSMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF OPTICAL FIBER Attenuation 36 - 82 36 Material absorption losses in silica glass fibers 36 2.2.1 Intrinsic absorption 37 2.2.2 Extrinsic absorption 38 Linear scattering losses 39 2.3.1 Rayleigh scattering 40 2.3.2 Mie scattering 40 Nonlinear scattering losses 41 2.4.1 Stimulated Brillouin scattering 41 2.4.2 Stimulated Raman scattering 41

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2.5 Fiber bend loss 42 2.6 Mid-infrared and far-infrared transmission 43 2.7 Dispersion 44 2.8 Intramodal Dispersion 46 2.8.1 Material dispersion 46 2.8.2 Waveguide dispersion 47 Intermodal dispersion 47 2.9.1 Multimode step index fiber 48 2.9.2 Multimode graded index fiber 51 Overall fiber dispersion 53 2.10.1 Multimode fibers 53 2.10.2 Single-mode fibers 53 Polarization 55 2.11.1 Fiber birefringence 55 2.11.2 Polarization-maintaining fibers 57 2.12 Nonlinear effects 58 2.13 Fiber alignment and joint loss 59 2.13.1 Multimode fiber joints 61 2.13.2 Single-mode fiber joints 63 2.14 Fiber splices 64 2.14.1 Fusion splices 65 2.14.2 Mechanical splices 67 2.14.3 Multiple splices 70 2.15 Fiber connectors 71 2.15.1 Cylindrical ferrule connectors 72 2.15.2 Expanded beam connectors 73 2.16 Fiber coupler 74 2.16.1 Three- and four-port couplers 76 2.16.2 Star couplers 78 2.9 2.10 2.11 UNIT – 3 3.1 SOURCES AND DETECTORS Introduction 83 - 104 83 3.2 LEDs 83 3.3 LED Structures 85 3.3.1 Surface emitter LEDs 85 3.3.2 Edge emitter LEDs 86

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