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Note for Internet and Web-Technologies - IWT by Sibo prasad Patro

  • Internet and Web-Technologies - IWT
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  • Computer Science Engineering
  • B.Tech
  • 5 Topics
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Sibo Prasad Patro
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Introduction: The Internet is a worldwide system of interconnected computer networks. The computers and computer networks exchange information using TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) to communicate with each other. The computers are connected via the telecommunications networks, and the Internet can be used for e-mailing, transferring files and accessing information on the World Wide Web. [1] The World Wide Web is a system of Internet servers that use HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) to transfer documents formatted in HTML (Hypertext Mark-up Language). These are viewed by using software for web browsers such as Netscape, Safari, Google Chrome and Internet Explorer. Hypertext enables a document to be connected to other documents on the web through hyperlinks. It is possible to move from one document to another by using hyperlinked text found within web pages. [2] Nowadays, there are several ways that enable us to access the Internet. Technology is keep improving, method to access the Internet also increase. People can now access Internet services by using their cell phone, laptop and various gadgets. The numbers of Internet service providers are also keep increasing. For example in Malaysia, there are many Internet service providers such as TM Net, Maxis , Digi, Celcom, Umobile, etc. [3] Communication is becoming much easier than before due to the appearance of Internet. One of the conveniences is that messages, in the forms of email, can be sent at any corner of the world within fractions of seconds. Besides that, email also facilitated mass communication which means that one sender reaches many receivers. Some of the services made available due to Internet include video conferencing, live telecast, music, news, e-commerce, etc Evolution of Internet: The Internet started as an experiment in the late 1960s by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA, now called DARPA) of the U.S. Department of Defense. ... Thousands of hosts and users subsequently connected their private networks (universities and government) to the ARPANET, thus creating the initial "ARPA Internet.” Packet switching networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, Tymnet, Merit Network, CYCLADES, and Telenet, were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s using a variety of communications protocols.[2] Donald Davies first demonstrated packet switching in 1967 at the National Physics Laboratory (NPL) in the UK, which became a testbed for UK research for almost two decades.[3][4] The Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) was developed by Robert E. Kahn and Vint Cerf in the 1970s and became the standard networking protocol on the ARPANET, incorporating concepts from the French CYCLADES project directed by Louis Pouzin. In the early 1980s the NSF funded the establishment for national supercomputing centers at several universities, and provided interconnectivity in 1986 with the NSFNET project, which also created network access to the supercomputer sites in the United States from research and education organizations. Commercial Internet service providers (ISPs) began to emerge in the very late 1980s. The ARPANET was decommissjioned in 1990. Web2.0: Sibo Prasad Patro,Asst. Prof, Department Of CSE. GIET, GUNUPUR.

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Web 2.0 refers to World Wide Web websites that emphasize user-generated content, usability (ease of use, even by non-experts), and interoperability (this means that a website can work well with other products, systems, and devices) for end users. The term was popularized by Tim O'Reilly and Dale Dougherty at the O'Reilly Media Web 2.0 Conference in late 2004, though it was coined by Darcy DiNucci in 1999.[1][2][3][4] Web 2.0 does not refer to an update to any technical specification, but to changes in the way Web pages are designed and used. The Web we know now, which loads into a browser window in essentially static screen full, is only an embryo of the Web to come. The first glimmerings of Web 2.0 are beginning to appear, and we are just starting to see how that embryo might develop. The Web will be understood not as screenfuls of text and graphics but as a transport mechanism, the ether through which interactivity happens. It will [...] appear on your computer screen, [...] on your TV set [...] your car dashboard [...] your cell phone [...] hand-held game machines [...] maybe even your microwave oven. Writing when Palm Inc. was introducing its first Web-capable personal digital assistant, supporting Web access with WAP, DiNucci saw the Web "fragmenting" into a future that extended beyond the browser/PC combination it was identified with. She focused on how the basic information structure and hyperlinking mechanism introduced by HTTP would be used by a variety of devices and platforms. As such, her use of the "2.0" designation refers to a next version of the Web that does not directly relate to the term's current use. [ Evolution of WWW : In the beginning, World Wide Web was introduced as a medium for sharing scientific and research documents, especially, between government organizations and academic institutions. But with the passage of time, it evolved and crossed the limits defined for it. Initially, till 1990, the WWW(World Wide Web) remains within the boundaries of CERN (a research organization), but by 1991, it became available to anyone using internet. Evolution of web from Web 1.0 (The World Wide Web) to Web 2.0 (The Social Web) and then to Web 3.0 (The Semantic Web) is shown in following figure. Web 1.0 – The World Wide Web (1990 – 2000)      Remain limited mostly to static websites. Mostly publishing / Brochure-ware. Limited to reading only for majority. Proprietary and closed access. Corporations mostly, no communities. HTTP, HTML Sibo Prasad Patro,Asst. Prof, Department Of CSE. GIET, GUNUPUR.

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Web 2.0 – The Social Web (2000 – 2010)        Publishing as well as Participation Social Media, Blogging, Wikis RSS – Syndicate site contents. Rich User Experience Tagging Keyword Search AJAX, JavaScript Frameworks (jQuery, Dojo, YUI, Ext Js etc), XML, JSON Web 3.0 – The Semantic Web (2010 – onward)         Mostly Drag n Drop Highly mobile oriented Widgets Micro blogging Cloud and Grid Computing Open ID Semantic Search Semantic Techniques like RDF, SWRL, OWL etc. Lets see how long Web 3.0 will go and what more will come with Web 4.0 (The Intelligent Web) Web 4.0: The Ultra-Intelligent Electronic Agent is Coming Tcp /ip : The entire internet protocol suite -- a set of rules and procedures -- is commonly referred to as TCP/IP, though others are included in the suite. TCP/IP specifies how data is exchanged over the internet by providing end-to-end communications that identify how it should be broken into packets, addressed, transmitted, routed and received at the destination. TCP/IP requires little central management, and it is designed to make networks reliable, with the ability to recover automatically from the failure of any device on the network. The two main protocols in the internet protocol suite serve specific functions. TCP defines how applications can create channels of communication across a network. It also manages how a message is assembled into smaller packets before they are then transmitted over the internet and reassembled in the right order at the destination address. IP defines how to address and route each packet to make sure it reaches the right destination. Each gateway computer on the network checks this IP address to determine where to forward the message. Udp : In computer networking, the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core members of the Internet protocol suite. The protocol was designed by David P. Reed in 1980 and formally defined in RFC 768. With UDP, computer applications can send messages, in Sibo Prasad Patro,Asst. Prof, Department Of CSE. GIET, GUNUPUR.

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