SYLLABUS Environmental Sciences (3rd Semester) S.l.No 01 Topic Overview on Environment • • • 02 Air Pollution • • • • Progress of Coverage Overview on environment and importance of environmental science. Basic idea on different terminologies: pollutants, contaminant, receptor, threshold limit value (TLV), sink. Components of Earth - Lithosphere, atmosphere, biosphere (the life zone of the earth) and hydrosphere. Different layers ofatmosphere (troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, (troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere, magnetosphere, pauses) and their composition. Concept of black body radiation and albedo. Variation of temperature (in atmosphere) with height (concept of lapse rate). Structural components and chemical composition of lithosphere (crust-upper mantlelower mantle- outer core-inner core), components of hydrosphere (surface wateroceans and seas - lakes and artificial water tanks, glaciers and permanent snow cover, underground water). Different components (living organisms, atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere) and composition (Biomes- Terrestrial biomes- Aquatic biomes) of Biosphere. Atmospheric pollutants –their types (primary, secondary and criteria), sources (stationary and area sources, mobile sources, agricultural sources, natural sources) and effects. Pollution due to SOx, NOx, PAN, and Smog Some important environmental issues due to air pollution: Depletion of ozone layer, Green-house effect, Acid Rain Controlling measures for air pollution cyclone separator, baghouse separator, scrubber, electrostatic precipitator, catalytic converter)
03 Water Pollution • • • • • 04 Waste Management • • Water pollutants – their types [oxygen demandingwastes, infectious agents, VOC, petroleum products, pesticides and herbicides, heavy metals, hazardous wastes (toxic, corrosive, reactive, ignitable), nutrients, sediment, thermal), sources (Point sources and nonpoint sources) and effects. Analysis of water Quality parameters (pH,DO, BOD,alkalinity, hardness, turbidity, temperature,TDS). Water treatment (sewage and waste water) – Primary treatment (removal by physical processes – sedimentation, flotation, coagulation, flocculation), Secondary treatment (biological treatment) excluding sludge treatment Some important biological treatment systems: Trickling filter, RBC, Oxidation Pond. Controlling measures. • Sources and generation of solid wastes, Nature of wastes (hazardous and non- hazardous) and chemical composition, characterization and classification of solid wastes (municipal, Biomedical, Nuclear and industrial) Management of solid wastes (collection, transportation, Durnping, Disposal) 05 Adverse Effects of Some Pollutants • • Toxic and Biochemical effects of some heavy metals like Pb, Cd,Hg and As. Toxic effects of radioactive and bio-medical wastes (Basic Discussion) 06 Environmental Impact Accessment (EIA) • • Importance of EIA, Scope of EIA, Environmental factors to be covered by EIA Basic Principles of the environmental impact assessment process; Development and management of EIA to address stepwise structures of EIA
Environmental Science - I by Dr. Tapas Ranjan Sahoo
Environment Environment is defined as everything that surrounds us. It essentially includes two parts (i) Physical Condition such as air, water, land etc, which are interlinked with the survival of the ecosystem and development of an individual or a community. (ii) Social and cultural conditions such as ethics, aesthetics, economics etc. on which the behavior of an individual or community is dependent.